(= loci (plural) )
The site in a linkage map or on a chromosome where the gene for a particular trait is located. Any one of the alleles of a gene may be present at this site. ...
locus control region
(= control region; LCR)
Region of DNA which contains the promoters and enhancers that regulate the expression of a particular gene. Often taken to be a single region 0-2kb ...
‘Logarithm of the odds’ score: a statistical test for the probability that there is linkage. For non-X-linked genetic disorders a Lod score of +3 (1000:1) is usually taken ...
Suboptimal coagulated-serum medium used to culture Corynebacterium diphtheriae in diagnostic bacteriology.
Squid. Source of giant axons for electrophysiologists.
Membranous structure, often containing internal membranes, located between the plasma membrane and cell wall of plant cells. Included in the more general term, paramural ...
Increase in the strength of transmission at a synapse with repetitive use that lasts for more than a few minutes. As a form of long-term synaptic plasticity it is important as ...
Identical DNA sequences, several hundred nucleotides long, found at either end of transposons and the proviral DNA, formed by reverse transcription of retroviral RNA. They are ...
Cells found beneath the dermal membrane of a few species of sponges. Have been postulated to constitute a primitive nervous system though this is uncertain.
Group of minor protostome coelomate phyla. Includes Bryozoa, Phoronida and Brachiopoda.
Shell or test secreted by a protozoan; often vase-shaped.
(= mevinolin; 6a-methylcompactin)
Fungal metabolite that inhibits hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoA reductase) and is used as an anti-hypercholesterolemic drug.
low density lipoprotein receptor
A cell-surface protein that mediates the endocytosis of LDL by cells. Genetic defects in LDL-receptors lead to abnormal serum levels of LDL and ...
One of the most commonly used assays for protein content - the paper describing it is said to be the most frequently cited in the biological literature. Depends upon the ...
Site in bacteriophage P1 DNA that is recognized by the cre recombinase. Now used in vertebrate transgenics: see >###.
Site-specific recombination system from E. coli bacteriophage P1. Now used in transgenic animals to produce conditional mutants. If two lox sites are introduced into a ...
Target sequence recognized by the bacterial cre recombinase.
See leucine-rich repeat.
One of the Dbl-like oncoproteins. See Lfc.
See long-term potentiation.
Bright yellow fluorescent molecule (similar to fluorescein), widely used by microinjection in developmental biology and neuroscience to study the outline of cells, in cell ...
An enzyme from firefly tails that catalyses the production of light in the reaction between luciferin and ATP. Used by the male firefly for producing light to attract females, ...
luciferase reporter system
Reporter genes that are based on firefly luciferase gene offer luminescent detection of reporter activity. As few biological processes emit light, this assay has a very low ...
Substrates for the enzyme luciferase that catalyses an oxidative reaction leading to photon emission (bioluminescence).
Compound used as a bystander substrate in assaying the metabolic burst of leucocytes by chemiluminescence. When oxidized by superoxide it emits light.
A renal carcinoma, caused by a herpesvirus, in frogs; it aroused interest because its abnormal growth appears to be dependent on a restricted temperature range. Nuclei from ...
A cavity or space within a tube or sac.
Isoform (37 kD) of corneal keratan sulphate proteoglycan also found in arterial wall and many other tissues.
A derivative of colchicine produced by exposure to ultraviolet light and that does not inhibit tubulin polymerization, although it has many of the nonspecific effects of ...
Compound used as a bystander substrate in assaying the metabolic burst of leucocytes by chemiluminescence. When oxidized by the myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide system, it ...
Altered form of rhodopsin produced as a result of illumination.
Subcellular membrane-enclosed vesicle that is the site of bioluminescence in some marine coelenterates.
Skin disease in which there are red scaly patches, especially over the nose and cheeks. May be a symptom of systemic lupus erythematosus.
A glycoprotein hormone (26 kD) and gonadotropin. Made up of an a -chain (96 amino acids) identical to other gonadotropins, and a hormone-specific b -chain. Acts with follicle ...
Synonym for luteinizing hormone.
A term sometimes used to describe those proteins that are produced specifically for the function of differentiated cells and are not required for general cell maintenance (the ...
Orphan nuclear receptor expressed in liver, intestine and adrenal gland, that can complex with retinoid-X receptor (RXR). Ligand may be oxysterol metabolites of cholesterol ...
Enzymes of the EC Class 4 (see E classification) that catalyse the non-hydrolytic removal of a group from a substrate with the resulting formation of a double-bond; or the ...
A linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid (536 D) ; the major red pigment in some fruit.
Disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, a tick-borne spirochaete.
Fluid found in the lymphatic vessels that drain tissues of the fluid that filters across the blood vessel walls from blood. Lymph carries lymphocytes that have entered the lymph ...
(= lymph gland)
Small organ made up of a loose meshwork of reticular tissue in which are enmeshed large numbers of lymphocytes, macrophages, and accessory cells. Recirculating ...
Pathological disorder of lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) was the name given to HIV by the Pasteur Institute group.
Often referred to as a blast cell. Unlike other usages of the suffix -blast a lymphoblast is a further differentiation of a lymphocyte, T- or B-, occasioned by an antigenic ...
White cells of the blood that are derived from stem cells of the lymphoid series. Two main classes, T- and B-lymphocytes, are recognized, the latter responsible (when activated) ...
(= lymphocyte transformation)
The change in morphology and behaviour of lymphocytes exposed to a mitogen or to an antigen to which they have been primed. The result is the ...
Cells derived from stem cells of the lymphoid lineage: large and small lymphocytes, plasma cells.
Tissue that is particularly rich in lymphocytes (and accessory cells such as macrophages and reticular cells), particularly the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, Peyer\'s patches, ...
Lackie Substance produced by a leucocyte that acts upon another cell. Examples are interleukins, interferon g, lymphotoxin (tumour necrosis factor b ), granulocyte-monocyte ...
Malignant neoplastic disorder of lymphoreticular tissue that produces a distinct tumour mass, not a leukaemia (in which the cells are circulating). Includes tumours derived both ...
Cytotoxic product of T-cells: the term is usually restricted to tumour necrosis factor b which is also known as lymphotoxin.
Having an affinity for lymphocytes - as for example some forms of HIV.
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase, related to src. Plays a critical role in B-cell development and intracellular signalling. Lyn-deficient mice exhibit splenomegaly, elevated serum ...
Hypothesis, first advanced by Lyon, concerning the random inactivation of one of the two X chromosomes of the cells of female mammals. In consequence females are chimaeric for ...
Characteristic of a material that readily forms a colloidal suspension. Molecules of the solvent form a shell around the particles; if the solvent is water then "hydrophilic".
Now generally restricted to mean freeze drying - removal of water by sublimation under vacuum.
A listing of anions and cations in order of their effect on protein solubility (tendency to cause salting out). Essentially a competition between the protein and the ion for ...
(= Lys; K; 146D)
Amino acid; the only carrier of a side-chain primary amino group in proteins. Has important structural and chemical roles in proteins.
Rupture of cell membranes and loss of cytoplasm.
The ability of some phages to survive in a bacterium as a result of the integration of their DNA into the host chromosome. The integrated DNA is termed a prophage. A regulator ...
Mono-acyl derivatives of diacyl phospholipids that are present in membranes as a result of cyclic deacylation and reacylation of phospholipids. Membranolytic in high ...
Bacteriophage that can take part in a lysogenic or lytic cycle in its bacterial host. See lysogeny.
Diseases (also known as storage diseases) in which a deficiency of a particular lysosomal enzyme leads to accumulation of the undigested substrate for that enzyme within cells. ...
A range of degradative enzymes, most of which operate best at acid pH. The best known marker enzymes are acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase, but many others are known.
Membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle containing a variety of hydrolytic enzymes that can be released into a phagosome or to the exterior. Release of lysosomal enzymes in a ...
lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins
(= LAMP-1, LAMP-2)
Group of lysosome-specific integral membrane glycoproteins. Long luminal domain, short transmembrane domain, very short cytoplasmic tail. Function not yet ...
A process that occurs after the internalisation of a primary phagosome. Fusion of the membranes leads to the release of lysosomal enzymes into the phagosome. Some species of ...
Having affinity for and thus accumulating in lysosomes.
Glycosidase that hydrolyzes the bond between N-acetyl-muramic acid and N-acetyl-glucosamine, thus cleaving an important polymer of the cell wall of many bacteria. Present in ...
Extracellular enzyme that deaminates lysine and hydroxylysine residues in collagen or elastin to form aldehydes, that then interact with each other or with other lysyl side ...
The large (2000 kD) cytolytic complex formed from complement C5b6789. See complement.
The normal cycle of infection of a cell by a virus or bacteriophage, in which mature virus or phage particles are produced and the cell is then lysed.
Vacuole found in plant cells that contains hydrolytic enzymes, analogous to the lysosome of animal cells but differing in morphology, function, enzyme content and mode of ...
Cells found amongst the other cells of the cuboidal surface epithelium of gut-associated lymphoid tissue; have a complex folded surface.
Central region of the A-band of the sarcomere in striated muscle.
Voltage-sensitive potassium +channels inactivated by acetylcholine. ACh acting at muscarinic acetylcholinesterase receptors produces an internal messenger that turns off this ...
Flow of potassium ions through M-channels.
Central part of the A-band of striated muscle (and of the M-band) : contains M-line protein (myomesin, 165 kD), creatine kinase (40 kD), and glycogen phosphorylase b (90 ...
Mitotic phase of cell cycle of eukaryotic cells, as distinct from the remainder, which is known as interphase (and that can be further subdivided as G1, S and G2). Beginning of ...
M-phase promoting factor
Protein whose levels rise rapidly just before, and fall away just after, mitosis. Thought to be a trigger for mitosis.
(1) Galactoside carrier in E. coli.
(2) Cell surface antigen of Brucella.
(3) Structural protein in the M-line of striated muscle (myomesin).
(4) Cell wall protein of ...
Innermost (motor) ring of the bacterial flagellar base, located in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. It is this ring that is linked to the hook region (and thus to the ...
See monoclonal antibody.
(= membrane attack complex.)
See complement and C9.
(= CR3; CD11b/CD18)
aM b2 integrin of leucocytes.
Agar-based medium used for isolation of bacteria from faeces etc. Contains lactose and neutral red as an indicator so that lactose fermenting bacteria will produce red-pink ...
Interferometric system in which the original light beam is divided by a semi-transparent mirror: object and reference beams pass through separate optical systems and are ...
A member of the Arenaviridae that may cause a severe haemorrhagic fever in humans. The natural hosts are rodents and transmission from human to human is not common.
Abnormally large red blood cells, numerous in pernicious anaemia.
Globulin such as IgM that has a high molecular weight: 400 kD in the case of IgM, 725 kD in the case of alpha-2-macroglobulin.
A group of antibiotics produced by various strains of Streptomyces that have a complex macrocyclic structure. They inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the 50S ribosomal ...
Biological term including proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates, but probably not phospholipids.
The larger nucleus (or sometimes nuclei) in ciliate protozoans. Derived from the micronucleus by a process of DNA polytenisation. The DNA in the macronucleus is actively ...
Relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues, derived from blood monocyte. Macrophages from different sites have distinctly different properties. Main types are ...
macrophage inflammatory protein 1
Cytokine now recognized to exist in two forms, MIP1 a and MIP1 b (SIS- a, TY-5, L2G25B, 464.1, GOS 19-1). Small cytokine (monokine) with inflammatory and chemokinetic ...
macrophage inhibition factor
A group of lymphokines (including a 14 kD glycoprotein) produced by activated T-lymphocytes that reduce macrophage mobility and probably increases macrophage-macrophage ...
Mouse homologue of CD68. Transmembrane scavenger receptor of the mucin-like class that includes LAMP-1 and -2. Expressed specifically on macrophages and related cells, ...