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СЛОВАРИ ОНЛАЙН →  Dictionary of molecular biology →  1.00-amph amph-barn baro-cata cata-conn conn-dipl dipt-exci exci-gene gene-high high-isop isop-macr macu-mucu muel-nucl nucl-pers pert-prom pron-rici rici-stab stac-toga tolb-west

Слова на букву muel-nucl (375)

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Mueller cell
(= Mџller cell) Supporting cell of the neural retina. Cell body and nucleus lie in the middle of the inner nuclear region, their bases form the internal and external limiting ...
multicopy inhibition
Inhibition of translation of the transcript of a transposase gene by a multicopy plasmid with suitable inhibitory gene. The plasmid inhibits transposition events in the host ...
multidrug transporter
(= Mdr; P-glycoprotein) Closely related family (ABC proteins) of integral membrane glycoproteins that export a variety of solutes from the cytoplasm.
multienzyme complex
Cluster of distinct enzymes catalysing consecutive reactions of a metabolic pathway, that remain physically associated through purification procedures. Multifunctional enzymes, ...
multigene family
See gene family.
ATP-dependent protease (500 kD) isolated from the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle. May form a complex with the 20S proteasome to form a 26S-like particle.
multiple cloning site
See polycloning site.
multiple myeloma
See myeloma cell.
multiple sclerosis
Neurodegenerative disease characterized by the gradual accumulation of focal plaques of demyelination particularly in the periventricular areas of the brain. Peripheral nerves ...
multipotent cell
Progenitor or precursor cell that can give rise to diverse cell types in response to appropriate environmental cues.
multivesicular body
Secondary lysosome containing many vesicles of around 50nm diameter.
muramic acid
(= 3-O-a-carboxyethyl-D-glucosamine) Subunit of peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.
See lysozyme.
muramyl dipeptide
Fragment of peptidoglycan from cell wall of mycobacteria that is used as an adjuvant.
Cross-linked peptidoglycan complex from the inner cell wall of all Eubacteria. Constitutes 50% of the cell wall in Gram negative and 10% in Gram positive organisms, and ...
Pertaining to mice.
murine leukaemia virus
A group of Type C Retroviridae infecting mice and causing in some strains lymphatic leukaemia after a long latent period. Nearly all are replication competent and v-onc ...
Mus musculus
House mouse.
Musca domestica
House fly.
Toxin (alkaloid) from the mushroom Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) that binds to (muscarinic) acetylcholine receptors.
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
Distinct from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in having no intrinsic ion channel; a seven membrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptor.
Tissue specialized for contraction. See also twitch muscle, catch muscle:
muscle cell
Cell of muscle tissue; in striated (skeletal) muscle it comprises a syncytium formed by the fusion of embryonic myoblasts, in cardiac muscle a cell linked to the others by ...
muscle fibre
Component of a skeletal muscle comprising a single syncytial cell that contains myofibrils.
muscle spindle
A specialized muscle fibre found in tetrapod vertebrates. A bundle of muscle fibres is innervated by sensory neurons. Stretching the muscle causes the neurons to fire; the ...
muscular dystrophy
A group of diseases characterized by progressive degeneration and/or loss of muscle fibres without nervous system involvement. All or nearly all of them have a hereditary origin ...
Tyrosine kinase localized on the postsynaptic surface of the neuromuscular junction. Mice lacking MuSK fail to form neuromuscular junctions. MuSK is probably involved in agrin ...
Genus of mustelids, mink, ferret, stoat etc.
Family of genes products of which are involved in mismatch repair. MutH codes for a repair endonuclease (25 kD) specific for unmethylated GATC, mutL codes for a protein (68 kD) ...
mutagenicity tests
See Ames test.
Agents that cause an increase in the rate of mutation; includes X-rays, ultraviolet irradiation (260nm), and various chemicals.
Change in optical rotation with time as an optical isomer in solution converts into other optical isomers.
Usage usually restricted to change in the DNA sequence of an organism, which may arise in any of a variety of different ways. See frame shift, nonsense and missense mutation.
mutation rate
The frequency with which a particular mutation appears in a population or the frequency with which any mutation appears in the whole genome of a population. Normally the ...
Protein with altered amino acid sequence - usually enough to alter properties.
Mx proteins
GTPases (70-100 kD) found in interferon-treated cells. Mx1 is found in the nucleus and determines the resistance of mice to influenza A virus by blocking transcription of the ...
Muscle pain.
myasthenia gravis
The characteristic feature of the disease is easy fatigue of certain voluntary muscle groups on repeated use. Muscles of the face or upper trunk are especially likely to be ...
An oncogene, identified in avian myeloblastosis, encoding a nuclear protein that binds the DNA sequence YAAC(G/T) G.
A proto-oncogene, identified in several avian tumours, encoding a nuclear protein with a leucine zipper motif.
Myc proteins
Family of proteins involved in control of transcription; have a C-terminal basic helix-loop-helix-zipper domain. Myc-Max heterodimers specifically bind the sequence CACGTG with ...
myc tag
Epitope tag frequently expressed as a translational fusion with a transgenic protein of interest. As there are good antibodies to the myc epitope, this allows localization of ...
Mass of hyphae that constitutes the vegetative part of a fungus (the conspicuous part in most cases is the fruiting body). Similar, though smaller, structures are found with some ...
Bacteria with unusual cell walls that are resistant to digestion, being waxy, very hydrophobic, and rich in lipid, especially esterified mycolic acids. Staining properties ...
mycolic acids
Saturated fatty acids found in the cell walls of mycobacteria, Nocardia and corynebacteria. Chain lengths can be as high as 80, and the mycolic acids are found in waxes and ...
mycophenolic acid
Antibacterial and antitumour compound from Penicillium brevicompactum. Inhibits de novo nucleotide synthesis.
Prokaryotic microorganisms lacking cell walls, and therefore resistant to many antibiotics. Formerly known as pleuro-pneumonia-like organisms (PPLO). Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a ...
Fungi associated with roots of higher plants: relationship is mutually beneficial and in some cases essential to survival of the higher plant.
Complex glycolipids found in mycobacterial cell wall. Non-toxic, non-immunogenic molecules that influence the form of the colony and the susceptibility of the bacteria to ...
mycosis fungoides
A human disease in which a frequent secondary feature is fungal infection of lesions in the skin. Recognized as a tumour of T-lymphocytes that accumulate in the dermis and ...
A gene that is involved in the determination of muscle cells.
The material making up the myelin sheath of nerve axons.
myelin basic protein
Major component of the myelin sheath in mammalian CNS. Used as an antigen will induce experimental allergic encephalitis, possibly a model for some neurodegenerative disorders. ...
myelin figures
Structures that form spontaneously when bilayer-forming phospholipids (eg. egg lecithin) are added to water. They are reminiscent of the concentric layer structure of myelin.
myelin sheath
An insulating layer surrounding vertebrate peripheral neurons, that dramatically increases the speed of conduction. It is formed by specialized Schwann cells, that can wrap ...
myelodysplastic syndrome
Haematological disorder that occurs mainly in the elderly as an acquired sporadic disease.
myeloid cells
One of the two classes of marrow-derived blood cells; includes megakaryocytes, erythrocyte-precursors, mononuclear phagocytes, and all the polymorphonuclear leucocytes. That all ...
myeloma cell
Neoplastic plasma cell. The proliferating plasma cells often replace all the others within the marrow, leading to immune deficiency, and frequently there is destruction of the ...
myeloma proteins
The immunoglobulins and Bence-Jones proteins secreted by myeloma cells.
A metallo-enzyme containing iron, found in the lysosomal granules of myeloid cells, particularly macrophages and neutrophils; responsible for generating potent bacteriocidal ...
Member of the myoD family of muscle regulatory genes/proteins.
See MRF-4.
(= inositol) ‘Muscle sugar’ - a name that is only really of historical interest.
Cell that by fusion with other myoblasts gives rise to myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibres. The term is sometimes used for all the cells recognisable ...
Inflammation of heart muscle usually due to bacterial or viral infection.
Middle and thickest layer of the wall of the heart, composed of cardiac muscle.
(= MyoD1) MyoD (myogenic determination) was originally described as a master regulatory gene for the determination of muscle cells, a process now thought to involve a family ...
myoepithelial cell
(= basket cell; basal cell) Cell found between epithelium of exocrine glands (eg. salivary, sweat, mammary, mucous) and their basement membranes, which resembles a smooth ...
Long cylindrical organelle of striated muscle, composed of regular arrays of thick and thin filaments, and constituting the contractile apparatus.
Histological term for fibroblast-like cells that contain substantial arrays of actin microfilaments, myosin and other muscle proteins arranged in such a way as to suggest that ...
The developmental sequence of events leading to the formation of adult muscle that occurs in the animal and in cultured cells. In vertebrate skeletal muscle the main events ...
Member of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory genes/proteins. Related to the myc proto-oncogene family.
Protein (17.5 kD) found in red skeletal muscle. The first protein for which the tertiary structure was determined by X-ray diffraction, by J.C. Kendrew\'s group working on ...
Protein (165kD) found in the M-line of the sarcomere.
Uterine smooth muscle.
Contractile organelle of ciliate protozoans; referred to as M-bands in Stentor, where they are composed of 8-10nm tubular fibrils. The spasmoneme of peritrich ciliates was ...
A family of motor ATPases that interact with F-actin filaments. An increasing number of different myosins are being described. Classical striated muscle myosin is myosin II. ...
myosin heavy chain
See myosin: do not confuse with heavy meromyosin which is a subfragment of the heavy chain of myosin II.
myosin light chain kinase
(= MLCK) Calmodulin-regulated kinase of myosin II light chains: molecular weight varies according to source, 130 kD in non-muscle mammalian cells. May regulate activity of ...
myosin light chains
Small subunit proteins (17-22 kD) of myosin II, all with sequence homology to calmodulin, but not all with calcium-binding activity: two pairs of different light chains are ...
Inflammation of muscle. Bacterial myositis can be caused by Clostridium welchii (gas gangrene). Viral myositis (epidemic myalgia) is usually due to Coxsackie B virus. ...
myotonic dystrophy
An inherited human neuromuscular disease classed as an autosomal dominant disease in which there is progressive muscle weakening and wasting. Caused by an unstable nucleotide ...
Small basic proteins (42-45 amino acids) in rattlesnake venom. Induce rapid necrosis of muscle.
Elongated multinucleate cells (three or more nuclei) that contain some peripherally located myofibrils. They are formed in vivo or i n vitro by the fusion of myoblasts and ...
myristic acid
The myristoyl group is one of the less common fatty acyl residues of phospholipids in biological membranes but is found as an N-terminal modification of a large number of ...
Many proteins in eukaryotes are covalently attached to myristic acid in membranes through amide linkages formed by myristoyl CoA:protein N-myristoyl transferase (NMT), at a ...
Mytilus edulis
The edible mussel, a marine bivalve mollusc. The ciliated gills are used for filter-feeding and these are utilized in studies on the cilium and on metachronism.
In the Myxomycetes, such as Physarum, each spore on germination produces two amoeboid cells, myxamoebae, which then transform into flagellated cells.
Group of Gram negative bacteria, found mainly in soil. They are non-flagellated with flexible cell walls. They show a gliding motility, moving over solid surfaces leaving a ...
Severe hypothyroidism usually as a result of autoimmunity to thyroglobulin. A variety of severe physiological problems accompany the reduction in thyroid function.
myxoma virus
A poxvirus (see Poxviridae) that causes myxomatosis. Originally isolated from a species of wild rabbit, Sylvilagus, in Brazil, in which it causes a mild non-fatal disease, it ...
Single-stranded RNA viruses of animals. Orthomyxoviruses include influenza viruses, Paramyxoviruses include mumps virus.
N-acetyl glucosamine
(= 2-acetamido glucose) A sugar unit found in glycoproteins and various polysaccharides such as chitin, bacterial peptidoglycan and in hyaluronic acid.
N-acetyl muramic acid
Sugar unit of bacterial peptidoglycan, consisting of N-acetyl glucosamine bearing an ether-linked lactyl residue on carbon 3. Repeating unit of the cell wall polysaccharide ...
N-acetyl neuraminic acid
A 9-carbon sugar, structurally a condensation product of N-acetyl mannosamine and pyruvate. Also known as sialic acid, but more correctly is a member of the family of sialic ...
See cadherins.
A phorbol ester/diacyl glycerol binding protein found in brain. A GTPase-activating protein for rac.
(= nuclear receptor corepressor) Protein involved in transcriptional repression by thyroid hormone and retinoic acid receptors. The corepressor complex may also contain Sin3 ...
N-end rule
The N-end rule holds that the in vivo half-life of a protein is determined by the N-terminal residues.
Enzyme that cleaves asparagine-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins.
N-glycosylation site
Exposed extracellular asparagine residues are often glycosylated (see glycosylation). The consensus site is N - P - (S/T) - P.
Regions in the sarcomere of striated muscle. The N1 line is in the I-band near the Z-disc, the N2 line is at the end of the A-band. The N-lines may represent the location of ...
Oncogene, related to myc, found in neuroblastomas.
(1) Anti-terminator protein of the lambda bacteriophage and other phages that plays a key role in the early stages of infection. During the early phase, only two genes N and cro ...
N-type channels
Lackie A class of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Restricted to neurons and neuroendocrine cells where they are involved in regulation of neurotransmitter or neurohormone ...
Mouse homologue of melanoma growth stimulatory activity protein.
See naphthalene acetic acid.
(= nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; NAD+ ; formerly DPN) Coenzyme in which the nicotine ring undergoes cyclic reduction to NADH and oxidation to NAD. Acts as a diffusible ...
(= TPN (formerly) ) Analogue of NAD, but NADPH is used for reductive biosynthetic processes (eg. pentose phosphate synthesis) rather than ATP generation.
Naegleria gruberi
A normally amoeboid protozoan found in the soil. When it is flooded with water or a solution of low ionic strength it transforms into a swimming form with two flagella.
(= nevus (USA) ) Tumour-like but non-neoplastic hamartomaof skin. A vascular naevus is a localized capillary-rich area of the skin ("strawberry birthmark"; sometimes the much ...
(= nagarase) Broad-specificity protease from bacteria.
Nagler's reaction
Standard method for identifying Clostridium perfringens. When the bacterium is grown on agar containing egg yolk, an opalescent halo is formed around colonies that produce a ...
Naja kaouthia
Asian cobra (one of the Elapidae ). See alpha-cobratoxin.
nalidixic acid
Synthetic antibiotic that interferes with DNA gyrase and inhibits prokaryotic replication. Often used in selective media.
An alkaloid antagonist of morphine and of the opiate peptides.
Namalwa cells
Line of human B-lymphocytes grown in suspension and used to produce interferon (stimulated by Sendai virus infection). Derived from patient with Burkitt&’s lymphoma.
Nanobacteria are the smallest cell-walled bacteria, only recently discovered in human and cow blood and commercial cell culture serum. They can produce apatite in media ...
nanovid microscopy
Technique of bright-field light microscopy using electronic contrast enhancement and maximum numerical aperture.
See interleukin-8.
See melanoma growth stimulatory activity.
naphthalene acetic acid
A synthetic auxin, often used in plant physiology and in plant tissue culture media because it is more stable than IAA.
(= b-naphthylamine) Potent carcinogen; used in production of aniline dyes, one of the first chemicals to be associated with a tumour (bladder cancer). The compound itself is ...
Angiosperm 2S albumin seed-storage protein from Brassica napus (oilseed rape). Consists of two polypeptide chains (3.8 and 8.4 kD) linked by two disulphide bridges. Interacts ...
Plant pigments derived from napthoquinone.
nastic movement
Non-directional movement of part of a plant in response to external stimulus. The tips of growing shoots of plants that twine around supports show nastic movement. See epinasty.
Of a substance or hormone, causing natriuresis (elimination of extra sodium in the urine). See atrial natriuretic peptide.
natriuretic peptides
Family of four peptides all sharing significant sequence homology and all act through guanylyl cyclase. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP-22) is a vasodilator and plays an ...
natural killer cells
(= NK cells) See killer cells.
natural selection
The hypothesis that genotype-environment interactions occurring at the phenotypic level lead to differential reproductive success of individuals and hence to modification of the ...
(= 6-nitro-7-sulphamoylbenzof quinoxaline-2,3-dione) Blocker of AMPA receptors.
(= nitroblue tetrazolium) See nitroblue tetrazolium reduction.
(= neural cell adhesion molecule) One of the first of the CAMs to be isolated from chick brain. Part of the immunoglobulin superfamily - as is NgCAM (neural-glial CAM). ...
Protein of the kinesin family that differs from kinesin in that it moves towards the minus end of the microtubule (like cytoplasmic dynein). Implicated in spindle ...
Small adaptor protein with SH2 and SH3 domains. Similar to Crk and Grb2 but of uncertain function.
(= nucleoside diphosphate kinase) Enzyme that generates nucleoside triphosphates or their deoxy derivatives by terminal phosphotransfer from ATP or GTP.
Family of large matrix proteins (600-900 kD) found in the N-line of the sarcomere of striated muscle. Consist of many (more than 200) repeats of conserved actin-binding ...
Death of some or all cells in a tissue as a result of injury, infection or loss of blood supply.
(1) Another name for SAM (substrate adhesion molecule) eg. fibronectin. (2) A protein forming the stalk of mitochondrial ATPase.
(= caspase-2; Ich-1) See caspases.
HIV protein that is important for pathogenesis, enhances infectivity and regulates the sorting of at least two cellular transmembrane proteins, CD4 and MHC Class I. Has a ...
negative feedback
This occurs where the products of a process can act at an earlier stage in the process to inhibit their own formation. The term was first used widely in conjunction with ...
negative regulation
Negative feedback in biological systems mediated by allosteric regulatory enzymes.
negative staining
Microscopic technique in which the object stands out against a dark background of stain. For electron microscopy the sample is suspended in a solution of an electron-dense stain ...
negative-stranded RNA virus
Class V viruses that have an RNA genome that is complementary to the mRNA, the positive strand. They also carry the virus-specific RNA polymerase necessary for the synthesis of ...
Negri body
Acidophilic cytoplasmic inclusion (mass of nucleocapsids) characteristic of rabies virus infection.
Gram negative non-motile pyogenic cocci. Two species are serious pathogens, N. meningitidis (see meningitis) and N. gonorrhoeae. The latter associates specifically with ...
(= cnidocyst) Stinging mechanism used for defence and prey capture by Hydra and other members of the Cnidaria (Coelenterata). It is located within a specialized cell, the ...
(= cnidoblast) Stinging cells found in Hydra, used for capturing prey and for defence. There are four major types, containing different sorts of nematocysts: stenoteles (60%), ...
nematode sperm
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has an unusual amoeboid spermatozoon that is actively motile yet appears to lack both actin and tubulin.
Cytoplasmic inclusion in some neurons.
Antigen acquired after a cell has been transformed by an oncogenic virus.
Opioid peptide (endorphin) cleaved from pro-dynorphin.
The new intima laid down in a vessel that has been dilated by angioplasty; often hyperplastic and the cause of re-stenosis.
Either of two aminoglycosides (B and C) produced by Streptomyces fradiae that have generalized antibiotic activity. Neomycin A (Ineamine) contains 2-deoxy-1,3-diamino-inositol ...
Literally new growth, usually refers to abnormal new growth, and thus means the same as tumour, which may be benign or malignant. Unlike hyperplasia, neoplastic proliferation ...
The persistence in the reproductively-mature adult of characters usually associated with the immature organism.
A xanthophyll carotenoid pigment, found in higher plant chloroplasts as part of the light-harvesting system.
(= neutral endopeptidase) Cell surface zinc endopeptidase (EC that hydrolyzes regulatory peptides such as ANP. Spontaneously hypertensive hamsters have elevated ...
Any method for estimating the concentration of cells or particles in a suspension by measuring the intensity of scattered light, often at right-angles to the incident beam. ...
The structural and functional unit of the vertebrate kidney. It is made up of the glomerulus, Bowman\'s capsule and the convoluted tubule.
(EC Neuropeptide-degrading neutral endopeptidase, a zinc metalloproteinase similar to bacterial thermolysin with some homology to endothelin converting enzyme.
Nernst equation
A basic equation of biophysics that describes the relationship between the equilibrium potential difference across a semipermeable membrane, and the equilibrium distribution of ...
Nernst potential
See Nernst equation and ion-selective electrodes.
nerve cell
See neuron.
nerve ending
See synapse.
nerve growth cone
See growth cone.
nerve growth factor
A peptide (13.26 kD) of 118 amino acids (usually dimeric) with both chemotropic and chemotrophic properties for sympathetic and sensory neurons. Found in a variety of peripheral ...
nerve impulse
An action potential.
Precursor cell of pancreatic B cells.
nested PCR
Variety of polymerase chain reaction, in which specificity is improved by using two sets of primers sequentially. An initial PCR is performed with the ‘outer’ primer pairs, ...
nested primers
Sets of primers for PCR so arranged that the second set to be used lie within the sequence amplified by the first set of primers and so on.
(= neural stem cell protein) Large (200 kD) intermediate filament protein found in developing rat brain. Functionally similar to other intermediate filament proteins but the ...
Genes identified in studies of vertebrate neuronal development. Netrins are chemotropic for embryonic commissural neurons: netrin 1 is secreted by the floorplate, whereas ...
Basic peptide antibiotic from Streptomyces. Binds selectively in minor groove of B-DNA and will induce A to B transition.
(= erb-B2) Oncogene, originally identified in a neuroblastoma, that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase of the EGF-receptor family. Ligand is neuregulin.
neural crest
A group of embryonic cells that separate from the neural plate during neurulation and migrate to give several different lineages of adult cells: the spinal and autonomic ...
neural fold
A crease that forms in the neural plate during neurulation.
neural induction
In vertebrates the formation of the nervous system from the ectoderm of the early embryo as a result of a signal from the underlying mesoderm of the archenteron roof; also ...
neural plate
A region of embryonic ectodermal cells, called neuroectoderm, that lie directly above the notochord. During neurulation, they change shape, so as to produce an infolding of ...
neural retina
Layer of nerve cells in the retina, embryologically part of the brain. The incoming light passes through nerve-fibres and intermediary nerve cells of the neural retina, before ...
neural tube
The progenitor of the central nervous system. See neural plate, neurulation.
neuraminic acid
See N-acetyl neuraminic acid.
(= sialidase) Enzyme catalysing cleavage of neuraminic acid residues from oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Since these residues are usually terminal, ...
Protein associated with neuronal microtubules. Structurally related to MAP-1B.
The neural axis of the body, the brain and spinal cord.
(= neu differentiation factor) Growth factor of the epidermal growth factor family that induces growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial and muscle cells in culture. ...
Synaptic cell surface proteins related to alpha-latrotoxin receptor, laminin and agrin. At least 180 transcripts from at least two genes. Cell recognition molecules at nerve ...
A process growing out of a neuron. As it is hard to distinguish a dendrite from an axon in culture, the term neurite is is used for both.
Cells arising by division of precursor cells in neural ectoderm (neurectoderm) that subsequently differentiate to become neurons.
Malignant tumour derived from primitive ganglion cells. Mainly a tumour of childhood. Commonest sites are adrenal medulla and retroperitoneal tissue. The cells may partially ...
Calcium-binding protein (23 kD) related to recoverin. Abundant in CNS.
Ectoderm on the dorsal surface of the early vertebrate embryo that gives rise to the cells (neurons and glia) of the nervous system. Also called the neural plate.
neuroendocrine cell
See neurohormone.
See neuroectoderm.
Axon-associated adhesion molecule of the vertebrate nervous system. Contains 6 Ig-like motifs and 4 fibronectin type II repeats. (Related to Ng-CAM, Nr-CAM).
neurofibrillary tangle
A characteristic pathological feature of the brain of patients with Alzheimer&’s disease is the presence of tangles of coarse neurofibrils within large neurons of the cerebral ...
Filaments found in neurons; not necessarily neurofilaments in all cases, and in the older literature \'fibrils\' are composed of both microtubules and neurofilaments. Originally ...
Tumours of neuronal sheath; the most common genetic disease. Type 1 neurofibromatosis is associated with the the von Recklinghausen Neurofibromatosis locus that encodes the NF 1 ...
Member of the class of intermediate filaments found in axons of nerve cells. In vertebrates assembled from three distinct protein subunits (NF-L 68 kD; NF-M 160 kD; NF-H 200 ...
Differentiation of the nervous system from the ectoderm of the early embryo. There are major differences between neurogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates.
neurogenic gene
Best described in Drosophila, genes that are required to determine a neuronal fate. Examples: Notch, Delta.
Protein isolated from Drosophila nervous system that is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It contains 6 immunoglobulin-like domains and 5 fibronectin type III ...
A hormone secreted by specialized neurons (neuroendocrine cells) ; eg. releasing hormones.
See tachykinins.
neuroleptic drugs
(= antischizophrenic drugs; antipsychotic drugs; tranquillisers) Literally "nerve-seizing": used of chlorpromazine-like drugs. Antagonise the effects of dopamine.
Alternate swellings and constrictions seen along the neuraxis at early stages of neural tube development, thought to be evidence of intrinsic segmentation in the central ...
Alteration in the effectiveness of voltage-gated or ligand-gated ion channels by changing the characteristics of current flow through the channels. The mechanism is thought to ...
(= GAP-43; pp46; B-50; F1; P-57) Protein associated with actively growing axons, especially in the growth cone. Binds calmodulin, is phosphorylated by protein kinase C.
neuromuscular junction
A chemical synapse between a motoneuron and a muscle fibre. Also known as a motor end plate.
(= neurone; nerve cell) An excitable cell specialized for the transmission of electrical signals over long distances. Neurons receive input from sensory cells or other neurons, ...
neuronal differentiation
Acquisition during development of specific biochemical, physiological and morphological properties by nerve cells.
neuronal guidance
See axonal guidance.
neuronal plasticity
Ability of nerve cells to change their properties eg. by sprouting new processes, making new synapses or altering the strength of existing synapses. See long-term potentiation ...
neuronal polarity
Distribution of specific functions to discrete cellular domains, eg. axons and dendrites that have different molecular composition, morphology and ultrastructure and perform ...
neuropeptide Y
(= NPY; melanostatin) Peptide neurotransmitter (36 residues) found in adrenals, heart and brain. Potent stimulator of feeding and regulates secretion of gonadotrophin-releasing ...
Peptides with direct synaptic effects (peptide neurotransmitters) or indirect modulatory effects on the nervous system (peptide neuromodulators).
Carrier protein (10 kD, 90-97 amino acids) that transports neurohypophysial hormones along axons, from the hypothalamus to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. See also brain.
neurosecretory cells
Cells that have properties both of electrical activity, carrying impulses, and a secretory function, releasing hormones into the bloodstream. In a sense, they are behaving in the ...
An Ascomycete fungus, haploid and grows as a mycelium. There are two mating types, and fusion of nuclei of two opposite types leads to meiosis followed by mitosis. The ...
Membrane-anchored chemokine (395 amino acid residues in mouse, 397 in man) with unique CXXXC pattern (unlike a -chemokines, CXC; b -chemokines, CC; and g -chemokines, C). ...
Tridecapeptide hormone (sequence: ELYENKPRRPYIL) of gastrointestinal tract: has general vascular and neuroendocrine actions.
A substance, often exquisitely toxic, that inhibits neuronal function. Neurotoxins act typically against the sodium channel (eg. TTX) or block or enhance synaptic transmission ...
A substance found in chemical synapses that is released from the presynaptic terminal in response to depolarization by an action potential, diffuses across the synaptic cleft, ...
Involved in the nutrition (or maintenance) of neural tissue. Classic example is nerve growth factor.
(= NT-3; hippocampal-derived neurotrophic factor or NGF-2) Member of the family of neurotrophic factors or neurotrophins that also includes nerve growth factor and ...
Molecules with closely related structures that are known to support the survival of different classes of embryonic neurons. See nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived ...
Having an affinity for, or growing towards, neural tissue. Rabies virus, which localizes in neurons, is referred to as neurotropic; can also be used to refer to chemicals.
A term for microtubules in a neuron.
The stage in vertebrate embryogenesis during which the neural plate closes to form the central nervous system.
The embryonic formation of the neural tube by closure of the neural plate, directed by the underlying notochord.
neutral mutation
A mutation that has no selective advantage or disadvantage. Considerable controversy surrounds the question of whether such mutations can exist.
neutral protease
Protease that is optimally active at neutral pH: see proteases.
Condition in which the number of neutrophils circulating in the blood is below normal.
(= neutrophil granulocyte; polymorphonuclear leucocyte; PMN or PMNL) Commonest (2500-7500/mm3 ) blood leucocyte; a short-lived phagocytic cell of the myeloid series, which ...
neutrophil-activating protein 3
(= NAP3) See melanoma growth stimulatory activity.
Neutrophil-derived platelet activator, probably a serine protease.
See naevus.
Newcastle Disease virus
A paramyxovirus that causes the fatal disease, fowl-pest, in poultry.
Protein (165 kD) that links the adjacent microtubule doublets of the axoneme in a cilium.
A connection or link.
Nezelof syndrome
Congenital T-cell deficiency associated with thymic hypoplasia.
(1) Nuclear factor-1; see CTF. (2) Neurofibromatosis-related protein-1.
See erythroid transcription factor.
(= nuclear factor of activated T-cells) Transcription factor involved in regulation of IL-2 and IL-4 gene transcription (in concert with other transcription factors). NFAT is ...
(= NFkappaB) A transcription factor (originally found to switch on transcription of genes for the kappa class of immunoglobulins in B-lymphocytes). It is involved in ...
Neural-glial cell adhesion molecule (CAM). See NCAM.
Abbreviation for nerve growth factor.

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