Now discredited. A membrane compartment proposed to contain the intracellular calcium store released in response to hormonal activity and thought to be distinct from the ER.
Polypeptide toxin (60 residues) from Dendroaspis polylepis. Specific blocker of some L-type calcium channels that will cause relaxation of smooth muscle and inhibition of ...
A polypeptide hormone produced by C-cells of the thyroid that causes a reduction of calcium ions in the blood.
calcitonin family peptides
(= ADM; CGRP1; CGRP2; amylin; calcitonin)
Family of small (32-51 residue) highly homologous peptides that act through seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors. ...
calcitonin gene related peptide
Neuropeptide of 37 amino acids with structural homology to salmon calcitonin. Co-localizes with substance P in neurons. Intracerebral administration of CGRP leads ...
(= 1a, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.)
The form of vitamin D3 that is biologically active in intestinal transport and calcium resorption by bone.
Usually used of the calcium-pumping ATPase present in high concentration as an integral membrane protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle. This pump lowers the ...
calcium binding proteins
There are two main groups of calcium-binding proteins, those that are similar to calmodulin, and are called EF-hand proteins, and those that bind calcium and phospholipid (eg. ...
Membrane channel that is specific for calcium. Probably the best characterized is the voltage-gated channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum which is ryanodine-sensitive. See ...
Inflow of calcium ions through specific calcium channels. Critically important in release of transmitter substance from presynaptic terminals.
A transport protein responsible for moving calcium out of the cytoplasm. See calcium ATPase.
Prolactin receptor associated protein, one of a family of small (around 10 kD) calcium-binding proteins containing the EF-hand motif, originally isolated from Erlich ascites ...
(= thyroid protein p24)
Calcium binding protein that contains an EF-hand motif.
Protein originally isolated from smooth muscle (h-caldesmon; 120-150 kD on gels but 88.7 kD from sequence) also found in non-muscle cells (l-caldesmon; 70-80 kD on gels but ...
Membrane-associated proteins (70 kD and 32 kD) of the annexin family. Originally from Torpedo, but subsequently found in bovine liver. May regulate exocytosis.
Calcium binding myeloid-associated proteins (8 kD and 14 kD; also known as p8,14 and as MRP-8, MRP-14) expressed at high levels in neutrophils and monocytes but lost during ...
Small toxic peptide (46 residues) from sea anemone Calliactis parasitica that acts on neuronal sodium channels.
Sea anemone (an anthozoan coelenterate) that lives commensally with hermit crabs. See calitoxin.
A plant cell-wall polysaccharide (a b-(1-3)-glucan) found in phloem sieve plates, wounded tissue, pollen tubes, cotton fibres, and certain other specialized cells.
(1) Bot. Undifferentiated plant tissue produced at wound edge - callus tissue can be grown in vitro and induced to differentiate by varying the ratio of the hormones auxin and ...
(= Compound R24571)
Inhibitor of calmodulin-regulated enzymes; also blocks sodium channel and voltage-gated calcium channel.
Ubiquitous and highly conserved calcium binding protein (17 kD) with four EF-hand binding sites for calcium (3 in yeast). Ancestor of troponin C, leiotonin C, and parvalbumin.
Calcium-binding lectin-like protein (67 kD, 592 residues) of endoplasmic reticulum that couples glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins with their folding. Calnexin and ...
Calcium-binding proteins from cytoplasm. Calpactin II is identical to lipocortin, and is one of the major targets for phosphorylation by pp60src. See annexin
Calcium-activated cytoplasmic proteases containing the EF-hand motif. Calpain I is activated by micromolar calcium, Calpain II by millimolar calcium. Calpain has two subunits, ...
Cytoplasmic inhibitor of calcium activated protease, calpain.
Annexins V and VI (35 kD) found in placenta. Have substantial sequence homology with lipocortin and may function like calelectrin.
One of a group of compounds isolated from Cladosporium cladosporioides that will inhibit protein kinase C with some specificity, though inhibits other classes of kinases if ...
Calcium and calmodulin binding troponin T-like protein (34 kD) isolated from chicken gizzard and bovine aortic smooth muscle. Interacts with F-actin and tropomyosin in a ...
Calcium-binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Acts as a chaperone for newly synthesized proteins, possibly in conjunction with calnexin. May be more ...
Neuronal protein (29 kD) of the calmodulin family isolated from chick retina. Has 58% sequence homology with calbindin, the intestinal cell isoform. Contains an EF-hand ...
Protein (44 kD) found in the cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum: sequesters calcium.
High affinity calcium/calmodulin binding protein found in postmeiotic male germ cells. Represents the C-terminal 169 amino acids of protein kinase IV and is produced from a ...
Calcium-binding (EF-hand) protein (20 kD) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Major component of the contractile striated rootlet system that links basal bodies to the nucleus in ...
Inhibitor of calcium ion transport found in bovine seminal plasma (47 amino acids, MW 5411, on gels 10 kD app.) and that resembles seminal antibacterial protein (confusingly ...
One of the bones that makes up the vault of the skull (in humans these are the frontal, 2 parietals, occipital, and 2 temporals). Calvaria are often used in organ culture to ...
(= Calvin cycle)
Metabolic pathway responsible for photosynthetic CO2 fixation in plants and bacteria. The enzyme that fixes CO2 is RuDP carboxylase. The cycle is the only ...
Toxin from marine sponge, Discodermia calyx ; potent tumour promoter and an inhibitor of protein phosphatases of Types 1 and 2a.
See crassulacean acid metabolism or cell adhesion molecule.
CaM kinase II
(= calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II; CaMKII)
A multi-substrate calcium-sensitive kinase composed of four homologous subunits, a, b, g, d, all encoded by different genes. ...
Bot. Meristematic plant tissue, commonly present as a thin layer which forms new cells on both sides. Located either in vascular tissue (vascular cambium), forming xylem on one ...
Attachment for a microscope that permits both a view of the object and, simultaneously, of the viewer&’s hand and drawing implement, thus facilitating accurate drawing of the ...
(= calmodulin-dependent kinase I)
Calcium-regulated kinase (37-42 kD) that is known to phosphorylate synapsins, CREB and CFTR. Widely distributed. See CaMKII.
Common abbreviation for cyclic AMP.
Cytotoxic plant alkaloid originally isolated from Camptotheca acuminata. Anti-cancer drug, inhibits DNA topoisomerase I.
Genus of Gram negative microaerophilic motile bacteria with a single flagellum at one or both poles. Found in reproductive and intestinal tracts of mammals. Common cause of food ...
In bone, channels that run through the calcified matrix between lacunae containing osteocytes. In liver, small channels between hepatocytes through which bile flows to the bile ...
Adult bone consisting of mineralized regularly-ordered parallel collagen fibres more loosely organized than the lamellar bone of the shaft of adult long bones. Found in the end ...
Originally descriptive of breast carcinoma, now a general term for diseases caused by any type of malignant tumour.
A dimorphic fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen of humans (causing candidiasis).
Infection by Candida albicans, common on mucous membranes ("Thrush"), but in immunosuppressed patients can opportunistically infect many tissues.
Group of compounds, all derivatives of 2-(2-isopropyl-5-methylphenyl) -5-pentylresorcinol, found in cannabis. Most important members of the group are cannabidiol, cannabidol and ...
(= CB1, CB2)
Seven membrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptors for cannabinoids (and endogenous agonists such as anandamide). CB1 receptors are mostly found in brain and may ...
Classical, archetypal or prototypic. For example, the canonical polyadenylation sequence is AATAAA.
(= catabolite gene activator protein)
Protein from E. coli that regulates the expression of genes for the use of alternative carbon sources if glucose is not available. For ...
cap binding protein
Protein (24 kD) with affinity for cap structure at 5\'-end of mRNA that probably assists, together with other initiation factors, in binding the mRNA to the 40S ribosomal ...
CAP1 = FADD; CAP2 = hyperphosphorylated FADD; CAP3 = unknown; CAP4 = pro-FLICE; CAP5, CAP6 = cleaved prodomains of FLICE.
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (18 kD) isolated from rabbit neutrophils. May mediate interaction of antimicrobial protegrins with surfaces of Gram negative bacteria.
Brief closings of an ion channel during its open phases, observed during patch clamp; or rapid transition of an ion channel between open and closed states such that the ...
A process occurring in mammalian sperm after exposure to secretions in the female genital tract. Surface changes take place probably involved with the acrosome which are ...
The small blood vessels that link arterioles with venules. Lumen may be formed within a single endothelial cell, and have a diameter less than that of an erythrocyte, which ...
Sulphonolipid isolated from the envelope of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter group of Gram negative bacteria. The acetylated form of capnine seems to be necessary for gliding ...
(1) Movement of cross-linked cell-surface material to the posterior region of a moving cell, or to the perinuclear region.
(2) The intracellular accumulation of intermediate ...
Molecule in chilli peppers that makes them hot and will stimulate release of neurogenic peptides (Substance P, neurokinins) from sensory ...
Genus that includes red peppers, pimentoes and green peppers. See capsaicin.
A protein coat that covers the nucleoprotein core or nucleic acid of a virion. Commonly shows icosahedral symmetry and may itself be enclosed in an envelope (as in the ...
Bact. Thick gel-like material attached to the wall of Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, giving colonies a "smooth" appearance. May contribute to pathogenicity by ...
Microfilament capping protein (32-36 kD) found in Dictyostelium and Acanthamoeba and that binds to the barbed ends of thin filaments in the Z-disc of striated muscle. ...
(= carbamoyl choline)
Parasympathomimetic drug formed by substituting the acetyl of acetylcholine with a carbamoyl group; acts on both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Obsolete: use carbamoyl.
Very abundant compounds with the general formula Cn(H2O) n. The smallest are monosaccharides like glucose; polysaccharides (eg. starch, cellulose, glycogen) can be large and ...
An amino acid found in some proteins, particularly those that bind calcium. Formed by post-translational carboxylation of glutamate.
Enzymes (particularly of pancreas) that remove the C-terminal amino acid from a protein or peptide. Carboxypeptidase A, (EC 188.8.131.52) will remove any amino acid; carboxypeptidase ...
Inclusion body (polyhedral body; 90-500nm diameter) found in some Cyanobacteria and autotrophic bacteria; contains ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO) and is involved ...
Antigen found in blood of patients suffering from cancer of colon and some other diseases, that is otherwise normally found in foetal gut tissue.
An agent capable of initiating development of malignant tumours. May be a chemical, a form of electromagnetic radiation, or an inert solid body.
The generation of cancer from normal cells, correctly the formation of a carcinoma from epithelial cells, but often used synonymously with transformation, tumorigenesis.
Intestinal tumour arising from specialized cells with paracrine functions (APUD cells), also known as argentaffinoma. The primary tumour is commonly in the appendix, where it ...
Malignant neoplasia of an epithelial cell: by far the commonest type of tumour. Those arising from glandular tissue are often called adenocarcinomas. Carcinoma cells tend to be ...
A mixed tumour with features of both carcinoma and sarcoma.
Strictly speaking any cell of or derived form the cardium of the heart, but often used loosely of heart cells.
Specific blockers of the > especially of heart muscle, eg. strophanthin.
Gelatinous extracellular material that lies between endocardium and myocardium in the embryo.
A diphosphatidyl glycerol that is found in the membrane of Treponema pallidum and is the antigen detected by the Wasserman test for syphilis.
Cytokine (201 amino acids) belonging to the IL-6 cytokine family. Binds to hepatocyte cell lines and induces synthesis of various acute phase proteins, is a potent ...
Genus of viruses belonging to the Family Picornaviridae, isolated mostly from rodents, cause encephalitis and myocarditis.
Inflammation of the heart, including pericarditis, myocarditis and endocarditis, according to whether the enveloping outer membrane, the muscle or the inner lining is ...
(= b-hydroxy-b-trimethyl-aminobutyric acid)
Compound that transports long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane in the form of acyl-carnitine. Sometimes ...
Dipeptide found at millimolar concentration in vertebrate muscle.
Fixative containing ethanol, chloroform and acetic acid. Better for nuclear structure than for cytoplasm.
Hydrocarbon carotenoids usually with 9 conjugated double bonds. Beta-carotene is the precursor of Vitamin A, each molecule giving rise to two Vitamin A molecules.
Accessory lipophilic photosynthetic pigments in plants and bacteria, including carotenes and xanthophylls; red, orange or yellow, with broad absorption peaks at 450-480nm. Act ...
carotid body cell
Cells derived from the neural crest, involved in sensing pH and oxygen tension of the blood.
Sulphated cell-wall polysaccharide found in certain red algae. Contains repeating sulphated disaccharides of galactose and (sometimes) anhydrogalactose. It is ...
Connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulphate. Cartilage is more ...
Protein encoded by Crkas gene (Crkassociated protein). Adaptor molecule with SH3 domain, multiple YXXP motifs and proline-rich region. Involved in induction of ...
Group of proteins isolated from milk. as and b-caseins are amphipathic polypeptides of around 200 amino acids with substantial hydrophobic C-terminal domains that associate to ...
Casein kinase II is thought to regulate a broad range of transcription factors in which it binds the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA-binding domains. CKII is present ...
casein kinase II phosphorylation site
Casein kinase II phosphorylates exposed Ser or sometimes Thr residues, provided that an acidic residue is present three residues from the phosphate acceptor site. Consensus ...
The development of a necrotic centre (with a cheesy appearance) in a tuberculous lesion.
Region of plant-cell wall specialized to act as a seal to prevent back-leakage of secreted material (analogous to tight junctionbetween epithelial cells). Found particularly ...
Family of proteases involved in processing of IL-1 b and in apoptosis.
A pre-existing structure into which an insert can be moved. Fashionably used to refer to certain vectors.
Term used for genes such as the a and b genes that determine mating-type in yeast; either one or the other is active. In this gene conversion process, a double-stranded ...
Alkaloid inhibitor of a -glucosidase I of which the effect is to leave N-linked oligosaccharides in their "high-mannose", unmodified state.
Disease characterized by lymph node swelling, hypergammaglobulinaemia, increased levels of acute phase proteins and increased numbers of platelets. Probably caused by excess ...
See chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.
Protein, later shown to be interleukin-1 IL-1, that stimulates the breakdown of connective tissue extracellular matrix.