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СЛОВАРИ ОНЛАЙН →  Dictionary of molecular biology →  1.00-amph amph-barn baro-cata cata-conn conn-dipl dipt-exci exci-gene gene-high high-isop isop-macr macu-mucu muel-nucl nucl-pers pert-prom pron-rici rici-stab stac-toga tolb-west

Слова на букву conn-dipl (375)

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connective tissue-activating peptide III
(= CTAP III) Cytokine, produced from platelet basic protein, that acts as a growth factor.
Generic term for proteins isolated from gap junctions. It has been proposed that connexins are the major structural proteins of the connexon. However, this is still a matter ...
The functional unit of gap junctions. An assembly of six membrane-spanning proteins connexinshaving a water-filled gap in the centre. Two connexons in juxtaposed membranes ...
Toxins from cone shells ( Conus spp). The a -conotoxins (small peptides, 13-18 residues) are competitive inhibitors of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The m -conotoxins are ...
consensus sequence
Of a series of related DNA, RNA or protein sequences, the sequence that reflects the most common choice of base or amino acid at each position. Areas of particularly good ...
conservative substitution
In a gene product, a substitution of one amino acid with another with generally similar properties (size, hydrophobicity, etc), such that the overall functioning is likely not to ...
Constantly present, whether there is demand or not. Thus some enzymes are constitutively produced, whereas others are inducible.
constriction ring
The equatorial ring of microfilaments that diminishes in diameter probably both by contraction and disassembly as cytokinesis proceeds.
contact following
Behaviour shown by individual slime mould cells when they join a stream moving towards the aggregating centre. Contact sites A at front and rear of cell may be involved in ...
contact guidance
Directed locomotory response of cells to an anisotropy of the environment, for example the tendency of fibroblasts to align along ridges or parallel to the alignment of collagen ...
contact inhibition of division
See density-dependent inhibition.
contact inhibition of growth
См. contact inhibition of division.
contact inhibition of locomotion
См. contact inhibition of movement.
contact inhibition of movement
Reaction in which the direction of motion of a cell is altered following collision with another cell. In heterologous contacts both cell may respond (mutual inhibition), or only ...
contact inhibition of phagocytosis
Phenomenon described in sheets of kidney epithelial cells that, when confluent, lose their weak phagocytic activity, probably because of a failure of adhesion of particles to the ...
contact sensitivity
Allergic response to contact with irritant, usually a hypersensitivity.
contact sites A
Developmentally-regulated adhesion sites that appear on the ends of aggregation-competent Dictyostelium discoideum (see Acrasidae) - at the stage when the starved cells begin ...
contact sites B
See contact sites A.
contact-induced spreading
The response in which contact between two epithelial cells leads to a stabilized contact and the increased spreading of the cells so that the area covered is greater than that ...
A 130 kD glycoprotein attached to the cytoskeleton via its cytoplasmic domain; concentrated in areas of interneuronal contact. Its sequence contains both immunoglobulin-like ...
Plasma membrane glycoprotein of 60-70 kD isolated from human diploid fibroblasts, which when immobilized on silica beads has been reported to reversibly inhibit the growth of ...
DNA sequence assembled from overlapping shorter sequences to form one large contigous sequence.
contractile ring
See constriction ring.
contractile vacuole
A specialized vacuole of eukaryotic cells, especially Protozoa, that fills with water from the cytoplasm and then discharges this externally by the opening of a permanent ...
Trypsin inhibitor (serpin) from rat.
control element
Generic term for a region of DNA, such as a promoter or enhancer adjacent to (or within) a gene that allows the regulation of gene expression by the binding of transcription ...
control region
General name for genomic DNA that, though binding of transcription factors to its promoters, enhancers and repressors, modulates the expression level of nearby genes.
Genus of gastropod molluscs, cone snails. See conotoxins and conantokins.
Coomassie Brilliant Blue
(= Brilliant Blue R) Trademark name for a dye that binds nonspecifically to proteins, used in Bradford methodfor protein estimation and for detecting proteins on gels. Recently ...
Phenomenon displayed by enzymes or receptors that have multiple binding sites. Binding of one ligand alters the affinity of the other site(s). Both positive and negative ...
coordination complex
Complex held together by coordinate (dipolar) bonds, covalent bonds in which the two shared electrons derive from only one of the two participants.
Genus of fungi that have gills that autodigest once spores have been discharged giving rise to a black inky fluid.
copy number
The number of molecules of a particular type on or in a cell or part of a cell. Usually applied to specific genes, or to plasmids within a bacterium.
cord blood
Blood taken post-partum from the umbilical cord.
cord factor
Glycolipid (trehalose-6,6\'-dimycolate) found in the cell walls of Mycobacteria (causing them to grow in serpentine cords) and important in virulence, being toxic and inducing ...
Transparent tissue at the front of the eye. The cornea has a thin outer squamous epithelial covering and an endothelial layer next to the aqueous humour, but is largely composed ...
cornified epithelium
Epithelium in which the cells have accumulated keratin and died. The outer layers of vertebrate skin, hair, nails, horn and hoof are all composed of cornified cells.
coronal section
A cross-section of the brain taken effectively where the edge of a crown would touch.
Family of single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for respiratory diseases. The outer envelope of the virus has club-shaped projections that radiate outwards and give a ...
Actin binding protein (55 kD) of Dictyostelium discoideum. Associated with crown-shaped cell surface projections in growth phase cells. Accumulates at front of cells responding ...
corpus callosum
Band of white matter at the base of the longitudinal fissure dividing the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
corpus luteum
(= corpora lutea (plural) ) Glandular body formed from the Graafian follicle in the ovary following release of the ovum. Secretes progesterone.
The proposed confinement of membrane proteins within a diffusion barrier, thereby limiting long-range translational diffusion rates without affecting short range properties (eg. ...
A p80/85 protein first identified as a substrate for src kinase. An F actin binding protein that redistributes to membrane ruffles as a result of growth factor-induced Rac1 ...
(1) Bot. Outer part of stem or root, between the vascular system and the epidermis; composed of parenchyma. (2) Region of cytoplasm adjacent to the plasma membrane. (3) ...
cortical granule
Specialized secretory vesicles lying just below the plasma membrane of the egg, that fuse and release their contents immediately after fertilization (activation) to prevent ...
cortical layer
See cortical meshwork
cortical meshwork
Sub-plasmalemmal layer of tangled microfilaments anchored to the plasma membrane by their barbed ends. This meshwork contributes to the mechanical properties of the cell surface ...
Name given to some defensins because they inhibit corticotropin-induced corticosteroid production.
Steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex. Formed in response to adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH). Regulate both carbohydrate metabolism and salt/water balance. ...
(= corticotropin) See adrenocorticotrophin.
corticotrophin releasing factor
See adrenocorticotrophin.
The major adrenal glucocorticoid; stimulates conversion of proteins to carbohydrates, raises blood sugar levels and promotes glycogen storage in the liver.
(= 11-dehydroxy-cortisol) Natural glucocorticoid formed by 11 b -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase action on hydrocortisone; inactive until converted into hydrocortisone in the ...
Genus of Gram positive non-motile rod-like bacteria, often with a club-shaped appearance. Most are facultative anaerobes with some similarities to mycobacteria and nocardiae. C. ...
COS cells
Simian fibroblasts (CV-1 cells) transformed by SV40 that is deficient in the origin of replication region. Express large T-antigen constitutively and if transfected with a ...
Of two genotypes, meaning that they tend to be inherited together, implying close linkage.
A type of bacteriophage lambda vector. Often used for construction of genomic libraries, because of their ability to carry relatively long pieces of DNA insert, compared with ...
Rod-shaped intracellular organelle lying below the undulating membrane of Trichomonas. Generates active bending associated with local loss of birefringence at the bending zone, ...
Regular periodic sub-membranous arrays of vinculin in muscle cells; link sarcomeres to the membrane and are associated with links to extracellular matrix.
Cot curve
Physicochemical technique for measuring the complexity (or size) of DNA. The DNA is heated to make it single stranded, then allowed to cool. The renaturation of the DNA is ...
Coturnix coturnix japonica
Japanese quail. Used extensively in developmental biology because quail nuclei can easily be distinguished from those of the chicken and this facilitates grafting experiments for ...
Modified leaf ("seed leaf"), found as part of the embryo in seeds, involved in either storage or absorption of food reserves. Dicotyledonous seeds contain two, monocotyledonous ...
Coulter counter
Particle counter used for bacteria or eukaryotic cells; works by detecting change in electrical conductance as fluid containing cells is drawn through a small aperture. (The ...
(= O-hydroxycinnamic acid) Pleasant-smelling compound found in many plants and released on wilting (probably a major component of the smell of fresh hay). Has anticoagulant ...
Rather nonspecific stain used in conjunction with another histochemical reagent of greater specificity to provide contrast and reveal more of the general structure of the tissue. ...
(= chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors I and II) Nuclear orphan receptors. See ARP-1.
The linking of two independent processes by a common intermediate, eg. the coupling of electron transport to oxidative phosphorylation or the ATP-ADP conversion to transport ...
coupling factors
Proteins responsible for coupling transmembrane potentials to ATP synthesis in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Include ATP-synthesising enzymes (F1 in mitochondrion), that can ...
Cowden disease
Germ-line mutations in PTEN are responsible for Cowden disease, a rare autosomal dominant multiple-hamartoma syndrome.
Coxsackie viruses
Species of enteroviruses of the Picornaviridae first isolated in Coxsackie, N.Y. Coxsackie A produces diffuse myositis, Coxsackie B produces focal areas of degeneration in ...
CpG island
(= CG island) Region of genomic DNA rich in the dinucleotide C-G. Methylation of the C in the dinucleotide is maintained through cell divisions, and profoundly affects the ...
(= carbamoyl phosphate synthetase) Enzyme responsible for production of carbamoyl phosphate, key substrate for pyrimidine biosynthesis (see ATCase). In Saccharomyces ...
Complement receptor 1 (CD35). Binds particles coated with C3b. Present on neutrophils, mononuclear phagocytes, B-lymphocytes and Langerhans\' cells, and involved in the opsonic ...
(= CD-21) Receptor for complement fragment C3d. Present only on B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells and some B- and T-cell lines and is the site to which the ...
(= CD11b/CD18; MAC-1) Receptor for complement fragment C3bi (iC3b), present on neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes. A b2 integrin.
Receptor for C3dg, the complement fragment that remains when C3b is cleaved to C3bi. Thought to be present on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils, but there is some ...
See cellular retinoic acid-binding protein.
crassulacean acid metabolism
Physiological adaptation of certain succulent plants, in which CO2 can be fixed (non-photosynthetically) at night into malic and other acids. During the day the CO2 is ...
Gene of E. coli bacteriophage P1 that mediates site-specific recombination at loxP sites. Now used in vertebrate transgenics: see lox-Cre system.
creatine kinase
(= creatine phosphokinase) (EC Dimeric enzyme (82 kD) that catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP and creatine phosphate in muscle.
creatine phosphate
(= phosphocreatine) Storage compound of vertebrate muscle. See creatine kinase.
Cyclic AMP response element binding factor. Basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor involved in activating genes through cAMP; binds to CRE element TGANNTCA. ...
Cyclic AMP response element binding factor. Basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor involved in activating genes through cAMP; binds to CRE element TGANNTCA. ...
CREB binding protein
Transcriptional co-activator (265kD) of CREB and of c- Myb. Only binds the phosphorylated form of CREB.
Distortion of the erythrocyte membrane giving a spiky, echinocyte, morphology. Results from ATP depletion or an excess of lipid species in the external lipid layer of the ...
(= calcinosis; Reynauds phenomenon; oesophageal dysmotility; sclerodactyly; telangielactasia) A complex syndrome characterized by the presence of autoantibodies toward proteins ...
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease
Rare fatal presenile dementia of humans, similar to kuru and other slow viruses. Method of transmission unknown. Will induce neurological disorder in goats 3-4 years after ...
cri-du-chat syndrome
Syndrome produced by loss of part of the short arm of chromosome 5 in man. Results in severe congenital malformation and affected infants produce a curious mewling sound said to ...
Cricetulus griseus
Chinese hamster. See CHO cells and Mesocricetus auratus.
Digestion of the contents of secretory granules following their fusion with lysosomes.
critical point drying
A method for preparing specimens for the scanning electron microscope that avoids the problems of shrinkage caused by normal drying procedures. Water in the specimen is replaced ...
An oncogene, identified in a chicken sarcoma, encoding an activator of tyrosine protein kinase. Protein product is a member of the family of adaptor-type signalling molecules ...
Protein synthesied by bacteriophage lambda in the lytic state. The cro-protein blocks the synthesis of the lambda repressor (that is produced in the lysogenic stage, and inhibits ...
Crohn's disease
Inflammatory bowel disease that seems to have both genetic and environmental causes; not well understood.
crossing over
Recombination as a result of DNA exchange between homologous chromatids in meiosis, giving rise to chiasmata.
Protein motif that describes the connection between strands in a parallel beta sheet. In principle, can be extended to the region between adjacent parallel alpha-helices.
croton oil
Oil from the seeds of the tropical plant Croton tiglium (Euphorbiaceae), causes severe skin irritation and contains a potent tumour promoter (co-carcinogen), phorbol ester.
Toxins from Crotalus spp. (rattlesnake) venoms. Heterodimeric phospholipase A2s, similar to secreted PLA2. Bind to specific proteins on presynaptic membranes and alter ...
crown gall
Gall, or tumour, found in many dicotyledonous plants, caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
See C-reactive protein.
See calreticulin.
Drosophila gene involved in epithelial development. Gene product contains 26 repeats of the EGF-like domain.
(= cryptochrome-1) Blue-light receptor from Arabidopsis. A flavoprotein coded by Hy4, a gene that is part of a small family that also encodes CRY-2, another blue-light ...
Fixation processes for microscopy carried out at low temperature to improve the quality of fixation. Often very low temperatures and fast cooling are used to prevent formation ...
Abnormal plasma globulin (IgG or IgM) that precipitates when serum is cooled.
The precipitate that forms when plasma is frozen and then thawed; particularly rich in fibronectin and blood-clotting Factor VIII.
Substance that is used to protect from the effects of freezing, largely by preventing large ice-crystals from forming. The two commonly used for freezing cells are DMSO or ...
Deep pit that protrudes down into the connective tissue surrounding the small intestine. The epithelium at the base of the crypt is the site of stem cell proliferation and the ...
An organism that lives hidden away or with all signs of life disguised as in dormancy.
See CR1.
Genus of flagellate protozoa with two slightly unequal flagella and a large chromatophore in some species.
Coccidian parasite found in the gut of various vertebrates that causes severe diarrhoea in man.
Major proteins of the vertebrate lens. Range from high MW oligomeric species to low MW monomeric species. Immunological cross-reactivity suggests that the sequences of crystallin ...
(= colony-stimulating factor-1; MCSF) Growth factor for haematopoietic stem cells; stimulates macrophage production. Gene can be activated as an oncogene by insertional ...
(= cytokine synthesis inhibiting factor) Usually in reference to the gene for this activity which is present in normal cells and in HIV. May play a role in immunosuppression.
Protein tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates a tyrosine residue in src family kinases, thereby allowing an inhibitory interaction with src kinase SH2 domain. (It is loss of the ...
See connective tissue-activating peptide III.
(= carboxy-terminal domain) Protein domain unique to Pol-II that contains multiple repeats of the YSPTSPS sequence. The CTD plays an important part in organizing the various ...
Phylum of biradially symmetrical triploblastic coelomates. Lack nematocysts and cilia though have comb plates (costae) arranged in eight rows. The comb jelly or sea gooseberry ...
(= CCAAT box-binding transcription factor; TGGCA-binding proteins) Large family of vertebrate nuclear protein transcription factors, around 400-600 amino acids, that bind to ...
See cytotoxic T-cells.
(= CD152) Type I transmembrane protein (20 kD) of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Found on activated T-cells and binds to CD80 on B-cells. Resembles CD28 but acts as a negative ...
Culex pipiens
Most widely-distributed species of mosquito. Salivary glands have giant polytene chromosomes.
(= CDC53) Gene family that is involved in cell cycle control and when mutated may contribute to tumour progression. Cullin (cdc53) is part of the SCF ubiquitin protein ligase ...
To grow in vitro.
Curare alkaloids are the active ingredients of arrow poisons used by S. American Indians; they have muscle-relaxant properties because they block motor endplate transmission, ...
The compartment for uncoupling of receptors and ligands: internalised receptor-ligand complexes are stripped of the ligand and recycled.
Cushing's syndrome
A type of hypertensive disease in man due probably to the oversecretion of cortisol due in turn to excessive secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Adrenal tumours ...
Waxy hydrophobic substance deposited on the surface of plants. Composed of complex long-chain fatty esters and other fatty acid derivatives. Impregnates the outer wall of ...
(= Cyanophyta) Modern term for the blue-green algae, prokaryotic cells that use chlorophyll on intracytoplasmic membranes for photosynthesis. The blue-green colour is due to ...
Usual form of Vitamin B12.
cyanogen bromide
(= CNBr) Agent that cleaves peptide bonds at methionine residues. The peptide fragments so generated can then, for example, be tested to locate particular activities.
(= Blue-green algae) See Cyanobacteria.
Blueish appearance of skin due to insufficient oxygenation of blood in capillaries. May be natural (response to cold) or pathological (cyanide poisoning, among other things).
cyclic ADP-ribose
(= cADPR; adenosine 5&’-cyclic diphosphoribose) Second messenger synthesized by the multifunctional transmembrane ectoenzyme CD38 in various systems particularly platelets, ...
cyclic AMP
(= cAMP) 3\'5\'-cyclic ester of AMP. The first second-messenger hormone signalling system to be characterized. Generated from ATP by the action of adenyl cyclase that is ...
cyclic GMP
(= cGMP) 3\'5\'-cyclic ester of GMP. A second-messenger generated by guanylyl cyclase. See ANP, nitric oxide.
cyclic inositol phosphates
1,2-cyclic derivatives of inositol phosphatide that are invariably formed during enzymic hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol species. Have been proposed as second messengers ...
cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases
Often casually referred to simply as phosphodiesterases. Multiple isoenzymes are known. PDE-I is calcium/calmodulin regulated and important in CNS and vasorelaxation, PDE-II is ...
cyclic phosphorylation
Any process in which a phosphatide ester forms a cylic diester by linkage to a neighbouring hydroxyl group.
cyclic photophosphorylation
Process by which light energy absorbed by photosystem I in the chloroplast can be used to generate ATP without concomitant reduction of NADP+ or other electron acceptors. ...
Proteins (A and B forms known) whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, rising steadily until mitosis, then falling abruptly to zero. As cyclins reach a ...
cyclin-dependent kinase
Family of kinases including cdc28, cdc2 and p34cdc2 that are only active when they form a complex with cyclins. The complex is maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and its activity ...
cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase
Kinase that activates cdks by phosphorylation. CAK phosphorylates a threonine residue of several cdks, and a tyrosine on cdc2 (phosphatase cdc25 reverses this).
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors
(= CKIs) Two classes of CKIs are known in mammals, the p21CIP1/Waf1 class that includes p27KIP1 and p57KIP2 and that inhibit all G1/S cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), and the ...
Enzyme complex present in most tissues that produces various prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid; inhibited by aspirin-like drugs, probably accounting for ...
Cyclic polymers of six, seven or eight a -1,4-linked D-glucose residues. The toroidal structure allows them to act as hydrophilic carriers of hydrophobic molecules.
Antibiotic (MW 281) isolated from Streptomyces griseus. Blocks eukaryotic (but not prokaryotic) protein synthesis by preventing initiation and elongation on 80S ribosomes. ...
Protein from Bordetella pertussis that is both an adenylate cyclase and a haemolysin.
Enzyme with PPIase activity; binds the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. See immunophilin.
An alkylating agent and important immunosuppressant. Acts by alkylating SH and NH2 groups especially the N7 of guanine.
Cyclical streaming of the cytoplasm of plant cells, conspicuous in giant internodal cells of algae such as Chara, in pollen tubes and in stamen hairs of Tradescantia. Term also ...
cyclosporin A
(= ciclosporine) Cyclic undecapeptide isolated from Tolypocladium inflatum, that has potent immunosuppressant activity on both humoral and cellular systems. The use of ...
Larval stage of Cirrepedia (barnacles) following nauplius stage.
(1) A resting stage of many prokaryotes and eukaryotes in which a cell or several cells are surrounded with a protective wall of extracellular materials. (2) A pathological ...
A group of natural cysteine-protease inhibitors (approximately 13 kD) widely distributed both intra- and extra-cellularly. See stefin.
(= Cys: C) The only amino acid to contain a thiol (SH) group. In intracellular enzymes the unique reactivity of this group is frequently exploited at the catalytic site. In ...
cysteine proteinase
(= thiol proteinase) Any protease of the subclass EC 3.4.22. Have a cysteine residue in the active site that can be irreversibly inhibited by sulphydryl reagents. Includes ...
cysteine string protein
Peripheral membrane protein, containing more than 10 palmitoylated cysteines and a DNA-J homology domain.
cystic fibrosis
Generalized abnormality of exocrine gland secretion that affects pancreas (blockage of the ducts leads to cyst formation and to a shortage of digestive enzymes), bowel, ...
cystic fibrosis antigen
(= CFAG; MIF related protein 8) Now known to be MRP-8. See calgranulins.
cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
(= CFTR) Gene believed to be defective in cystic fibrosis. Gene encodes a chloride channel, homologous to a family of proteins that actively transport small solutes in an ...
The amino acid formed by linking two cysteine residues with a disulphide linkage between the two sulphydryl (SH) groups. The analogous compound present within proteins is ...
Nucleoside consisting of D-ribose and the pyrimidine base cytosine.
cytidine 5'diphosphate
CDP (derived from cytidine 5\' triphosphate) is important in phosphatide biosynthesis; activated choline is CDP-choline.
cytidylic acid
Ribonucleotide of cytosine.
Calmodulin-binding proteins associated with the cytoskeleton.
Branch of histochemistry associated with the localization of cellular components by specific staining methods, as for example the localization of acid phosphatases by the ...
cytochrome oxidase
Terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain that accepts electrons from (ie. oxidizes) cytochrome C and transfers electrons to molecular oxygen.
cytochrome P450
(= cytochrome m; CYP) Large group of mixed-function oxidases of the cytochrome b type, involved, among other things, in steroid hydroxylation reactions in the adrenal cortex. ...
Enzymes of the electron transport chain that are pigmented by virtue of their haemprosthetic groups. Very highly conserved in evolution.
(= B2-1) Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for human ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases. Abundant in cells of the immune system where it mediates PI3-kinase activation of ...
Generic name for the intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells.
Small proteins (in the range of 5-20 kD) released by cells and that affect the behaviour of other cells. Not really different from hormones, but the term tends to be used as a ...
Process in which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided after nuclear division (mitosis) is complete.
Class of plant growth substances (plant hormones) active in promoting cell division. Also involved in cell growth and differentiation and in other physiological processes. ...
The study of cells. Implies the use of light or electron microscopic methods for the study of morphology.
Cell lysis.
Membrane-bounded region of cytoplasm that is subsequently digested.
Probably the most widespread of the Herpetoviridae group. Infected cells enlarge and have a characteristic inclusion body (composed of virus particles) in the nucleus. Causes ...
Substance contained within the plasma membrane excluding, in eukaryotes, the nucleus.
cytoplasmic bridge
(= plasmodesmata) Thin strand of cytoplasm linking cells as in higher plants, Volvox, between nurse cells and developing eggs, and between developing sperm cells. Unlike gap ...
cytoplasmic inheritance
Inheritance of parental characters through a non-chromosomal means; thus mitochondrial DNA is cytoplasmically inherited since the information is not segregated at mitosis. In a ...
cytoplasmic streaming
Bulk flow of the cytoplasm of cells. Most conspicuous in large cells such as amoebae and the internodal cells of Chara where the rate of movement may be as high as 100 m m/sec. ...
Fragment of cell with nucleus removed (in karyoplast) ; usually achieved by cytochalasin B treatment followed by mild centrifugation on a step gradient.
Cell anus: region at posterior of a ciliate where exhausted food vacuoles are expelled.
Pyrimidine base found in DNA and RNA. Pairs with guanine. Glycosylated base is cytidine.
cytosine arabinoside
(= cytarabine) Cytotoxic drug used in oncology (particularly AML) and against viral infections. Blocks DNA synthesis.
General term for the internal components of animal cells which give them structural strength and motility: plant cells and bacteria use an extracellular cell wall instead. The ...
That part of the cytoplasm that remains when organelles and internal membrane systems are removed.
A specialized region of various protozoans in which phagocytosis is likely to occur. Often there is a clear concentration of microtubules or/and microfilaments in the region of ...
See tenascin.
cytotoxic necrotising factors
(= CNFs) Toxins (110 kD, monomeric) produced by some strains of E. coli. Induce ruffling and stress fibre formation in fibroblasts and block cytokinesis by acting on p21 Rho. ...
cytotoxic T-cells
Subset of T-lymphocytes (mostly CD8+ ) responsible for lysing target cells and for killing virus-infected cells (in the context of Class I histocompatibility antigens).
Descriptive of any substance that promotes the growth or survival of cells. Not commonly used except in the tissue-specific case of neurotrophic factors.
Having affinity for cells: not to be confused with cytotrophic.
Movement of cells towards or away from other cells.
D cells
(= d cells; delta cells) Cells of the pancreas; about 5% of the cells present in primate pancreas with small argentaffin-positive granules. Their function is unclear, but they ...
D loop
(= displacement loop) Structure formed when an additional strand of DNA is taken up by a duplex so that one strand is displaced and sticks out like a D-shaped loop. Tends to ...
D-gene segment
(= diversity gene segment) Part of the gene for the immunoglobulin heavy chain, it codes for part of the hypervariable region of the VH domain and is located between the VH ...
Dane particle
42nm particle, the complete infective virion of hepatitis B.
Danio rerio
Formerly Brachdanio rerio, the zebrafish.
dansyl chloride
(= 1-dimethyl-amino-naphthalene-5-sulphonyl chloride) A strongly fluorescent compound that will react with the terminal amino group of a protein. After acid hydrolysis of all the ...
Diabetes related peptide. See islet amyloid peptide.
Disulphide-linked homodimeric protein (12 kD) that interacts with KIR2DS2. Resembles g -chain of Fc e RI and z -chain of T-cell receptor. Cytoplasmic tail has an ITAM that will ...
Daphnia magnus
Cladoceran crustacean, the water flea.
DAPI stain
(= 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) Fluorochrome that binds to DNA and is used biochemically for detection of DNA and to stain the nucleus in fluorescence microscopy.
Drug related to the sulphonamides (diaminodiphenyl sulphone) that is used to treat leprosy (causative agent is Mycobacterium leprae ). May act by inhibiting folate synthesis. ...
dark current
(of retina) Current caused by constant influx of sodium ions into the rod outer segment of retinal photoreceptors, and that is blocked by light (leading to hyperpolarization). ...
dark field microscopy
A system of microscopy in which particles are illuminated at a very low angle from the side so that the background appears dark and the objects are seen by diffracted and ...
dark reaction
The reactions in phostosynthesis that occur after NADPH and ATP production, and that take place in the stroma of the chloroplast. By means of the reaction, CO2 is incorporated ...
Datura stramonium
Jimson weed or thornapple. Source of scopolamine.
B-lymphoblastoid cell line from Burkitt&’s lymphoma in 16-year-old male Negro. Have surface complement receptors and IgG and are EBV marker positive.
dauer larva
Semidormant stage of larval development in nematodes (for example Caenorhabditis elegans ), triggered by a pheromone: essentially a survival strategy.
Human oncogene originally identified by transfection of NIH-3T3 cells with DNA from human diffuse B-cell lymphoma. A guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for rho-family ...
Dbl family
(= Dbl, Dbs, Brx, Lfc, Lsc, Ect2, DRhoGEF2, Vav) Family of proteins containing DH domains and with guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity for rho family of small ...
See differential display PCR.
An enzyme that removes an acetyl group: one of the most active deacetylation reactions is the constant deacetylation (and reacetylation) of lysyl residues in histones (the half ...
DEAD-box helicases
Family of ATP-dependent DNA or RNA helicases with a 4 amino acid consensus, -D-E-A-D-, that resembles an ATP binding site. Examples: p68, a human nuclear protein involved in ...
DEAD-box proteins
Include the DEAD-box helicases; may protect mRNA from degradation by endonucleases.
(= diethyl-aminoethyl-) Group that is linked to cellulose or Sephadex to give a positive charge and thus to produce an anion exchange matrix for chromatography.
deamination of nucleic acids
The spontaneous loss of the amino groups of cytosine (yielding uracil), methyl cytosine (yielding thymine), or of adenine (yielding hypoxanthine). It can be argued that the ...
death domain
Conserved domain (around 80 amino acids) found in cytoplasmic portion of some receptors (including the TNF-receptor), essential for generating signals that often lead to ...
death receptors
Superfamily of tumour necrosis factor receptors including TNF-R1, CD95, TRAMP, that trigger apoptotic cell death through interaction of various adapter proteins (FADD, TRADD ...
death-effector domain
Domain at the C-terminus of FADD and N-terminus of FLICE. Interaction mediated by these domains leads to the assembly of the death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) which ...
A term of French origin for the removal of necrotic, infected or foreign material from a wound.
Drosophila gene, product related to TGF a.
decay accelerating factor
Plasma protein that regulates complement cascade by blocking the formation of the C3bBb complex (the C3 convertase of the alternate pathway). Widely distributed in tissues but ...
See endometrium.
Process in digital image handling whereby a composite image is formed using information from several separate images taken at different levels (focal planes). The final image can ...
A small proteoglycan, 90-140 kD, of the extracellular matrix, so-called because it "decorates" collagen fibres. The core protein has a mass of approximately 42 kD and is very ...
Loss of differentiated characteristics. In plants, most cells, including the highly differentiated haploid microspores (immature pollen cells) of angiosperms, can lose their ...
deep cells
Cells (blastomeres) in the teleost blastula that lie between the outer cell layer and the yolk syncytial layer, and are the cells from which the embryo proper is constructed ...
defective virus
A virus genetically deficient in replication, but that may nevertheless be replicated when it co-infects a host cell in the presence of a wild-type "helper" virus. Most acute ...
Family of small (30-35 residue) cysteine-rich cationic proteins found in vertebrate phagocytes (notably the azurophil granules of neutrophils) and active against bacteria, ...
defined medium
Cell culture medium in which all components are known. In practice this means that the serum (that is normally added to culture medium for animal cells) is replaced by ...
definitive erythroblast
Embryonic erythroblast found in the liver; smaller than primitive erythroblasts, they lose their nucleus at the end of the maturation cycle and produce erythrocytes with adult ...
The coding of a single amino acid by more than one base triplet (codon). Of the 64 possible codons, three are used for stop signals, leaving 61 for only 20 amino acids. Since ...
degenerate primer
A single-stranded synthetic oligonucleotide designed to hybridize to DNA encoding a particular protein sequence. As the mapping of codons to amino acids is many-to-one, the ...
Products of deg -1, mec -4 and mec -10 genes in Caenorhabditis elegans which turn out to have homology with amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. Mutations cause neuronal ...
(= RNA degradosome) Multienzyme complex in E. coli that contains exoribonuclease, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), endoribonuclease E (RNAase E), enolase and Rh1B (a ...
Release of secretory granule contents by fusion with the plasma membrane.
Removal of water as in preparing a specimen for embedding or a histological section for clearing and mounting.
Class of plant proteins expressed in response to water shortage, and notable for a run of 7 contiguous serines.
Enzyme that oxidizes a substrate by transferring hydrogen to an acceptor that is either NAD+/NADP+ or a flavin enzyme.
delayed rectifier channels
The potassium-selective ion channels of axons, so called because they change the potassium conductance with a delay after a voltage step. The name is used to denote any axon-like ...
delayed-type hypersensitivity
See hypersensitivity.
deletion mutation
A mutation in which one or more (sequential) nucleotides is lost from the genome. If the number lost is not divisible by 3 and is in a coding region, the result is a ...
Neurogenic gene locus in Drosophila. Gene product contains 9 repeats of the EGF-like domain.
delta chains
(= d-chains) See immunoglobulin. The heavy chains of mouse and human IgD immunoglobulins.
delta virus
Hepatitis D virus. A defective RNA virus requiring a helper virus, usually Hepatitis B virus, for replication. Delta virus infections may exacerbate the clinical effects of ...
(= d-endotoxin) The toxic glycoprotein produced by sporulating Bacillus thuringiensis that can kill insects.
Actin microfilament bundling protein (52 kD, but variants of similar molecular weight are reported) ; contains an SH3 domain and is extensively palmitoylated; associated with ...

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