Diseases in which the myelin sheath of nerves is destroyed and that often have an autoimmune component. Examples are multiple sclerosis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis ...
Reversible or irreversible loss of function in proteins and nucleic acids resulting from loss of higher order (secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure) produced by ...
A long, branching outgrowth from a neuron, that carries electrical signals from synapses to the cell body; unlike an axon that carries electrical signals away from the cell ...
(1) Follicular dendritic cells, found in germinal centres of spleen and lymph nodes, retain antigen for long periods.
(2) Accessory (antigen-presenting) cells, positive for Class ...
Wine-glass or mushroom-shaped protrusions from dendrites that represent the principal site of termination of excitatory afferent neurons on interneurons, especially in the ...
Characteristic (tree-like) pattern of outgrowths of neuronal dendrites.
Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide
Natriuretic peptide, 38 residues, found in the venom of the snake Dendroaspis angusticeps. Binds to atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A but not to the ANP-receptors type B. ...
Polypeptides (57-60 residues) isolated from Dendroaspis (snake) venom that are selective blockers of voltage-gated K+ channels in a variety of tissues and cell types. Have ...
Removal of nerve supply to a tissue, usually by cutting or crushing the axons.
Tropical disease caused by a flavivirus (one of the arboviruses), transmitted by mosquitoes. A more serious complication is dengue shock syndrome, a haemorrhagic fever ...
Areas of electron density associated with the thin filaments in smooth muscle cells. Some are associated with the plasma membrane, others are cytoplasmic.
density dependent inhibition of growth
The phenomenon exhibited by most normal (anchorage dependent) animal cells in culture that stop dividing once a critical cell density is reached. The critical density is ...
A column of liquid in which the density varies continually with position, usually as a consequence of variation of concentration of a solute. Such gradients may be established by ...
Nerve cell masss, oval in shape, located in the centre of each of the cerebral hemispheres.
A bile salt. The sodium salt is used as a detergent to make membrane proteins water soluble.
Analogue of glucose in which the hydroxyl on C-2 is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Since it is often taken up by cells but not further metabolized, it can be ...
Antibiotic produced by Bacillus spp; inhibits a -glucosidases and thus interferes with the glycosylation of cell surface glycoproteins.
(= DNAase; DNase)
An endonucleasewith preference for DNA. Pancreatic DNAase I yields di- and oligo-nucleotide 5&’ phosphates, pancreatic DNAase II yields 3&’ phosphates. ...
The sugar that when linked by 3&’-5&’ phosphodiester bonds forms the backbone of DNA.
(= CD148; HPTPe;)
Density-enhanced phosphatase-1 (220-250 kD). Transmembrane protein with eight extracellular FnIII domains and a single cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase domain. ...
Actin depolymerizing protein (17.6 kD) originally isolated from echinoderm eggs. Similar to actophorin.
A positive shift in a cell\'s resting potential (that is normally negative), thus making it numerically smaller and less polarized, eg. -90mV to -50mV. The opposite of ...
Polypeptides that contain ester bonds as well as peptides. Naturally occurring depsipeptides are usually cyclic; they are common metabolic products of microorganisms and often ...
(of DNA) The N-glycosidic link between purine bases and deoxyribose in DNA has an appreciable rate of spontaneous cleavage in vivo, a lesion that must be enzymically repaired ...
Anything that stops the repression of a gene thereby allowing expression to occur.
Bot. Outer covering of plants, that includes the epidermis and periderm (non-living bark). Compare dermis.
Glycosaminoglycan (15-40 kD) typical of extracellular matrix of skin, blood vessels and heart. Repeating units of D-glucuronic acid-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or L-iduronic ...
Inflammation of the dermis, often a result of contact sensitivity.
Recessive disorder of cattle in which a procollagen peptidase is absent. In consequence the amino- and carboxy-terminal peptides of procollagen are not removed, the collagen ...
Mesodermally derived connective tissue underlying the epithelium of the skin.
Usually benign cyst, the walls of which are of dermal origin. Many ovarian tumours are dermoid cysts.
A variant of xeroderma pigmentosum in which a different DNA repair enzyme is involved. Hybrid fibroblasts formed by Sendai virus fusion of the two types show normal repair ...
In a general sense: see adaptation. Immunologically, the term is used to mean the administration of a graded series of doses of an antigen to which there is an immediate ...
Iron transporter from Streptomyces pilosus that chelates ferric ions. Used clinically to treat acute iron poisoning.
Chlorophyte algae that are usually freshwater living and unicellular. Their cell wall often has elaborate ornamented shape.
A protein (53 kD) of intermediate filaments, somewhat similar to vimentin, but characteristic of muscle cells. Type III intermediate-filament protein. Co-localises with ...
A protein (240 kD) isolated from bovine desmosomes that binds calcium-calmodulin and cytokeratin-type intermediate filaments.
Glycoproteins of 130 and 115 kD (desmocollins I and II) isolated from desmosomes. Antibody fragments directed against desmocollins block desmosome formation, and desmocollins ...
Transmembrane glycoprotein (165 kD) found in desmosomes.
Proteins isolated from desmosomes. Types I (240 kD) and II (210 kD) are long flexible rod-like molecules about 100nm long made of two polypeptide chains in parallel. Desmoplakin ...
Component of elastin, formed from four side chains of lysine and constituting a cross-linkage.
(= macula adherens junctions; spot desmosomes)
Specialized cell junction characteristic of epithelia into which intermediate filaments (tonofilaments of cytokeratin) are ...
Cylindrical membrane-lined channel through a plasmodesma, linking the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum in the two cells.
Desmosomal plaque protein (680 kD) from bovine muzzle keratinocytes. Homologous with human AHNAK protein.
Shedding of outer layer of skin (squames) or of cells from other epithelia.
Actin depolymerizing protein (19 kD) from pig, apparently identical to ADF and similar to cofilin.
Cyclic depsipeptide fungal toxins that suppress the immune response in invertebrates.
Separation of the paired homologous chromosomes at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase I.
Amphipathic, surface active, molecules with polar (water soluble) and non-polar (hydrophobic) domains. They bind strongly to hydrophobic molecules or molecular domains to confer ...
The commitment of a cell to a particular path of differentiation, even though there may be no morphological features that reveal this determination. Generally irreversible, but ...
Reactions taking place generally in the liver or kidney in order to inactivate toxins, either by degradation or else by conjugation of residues to a hydrophilic moiety to ...
Heavy water, in which the hydrogen is replaced by deuterium. Will stabilize assembled microtubules.
Outmoded term for group now reclassified as Deuteromycotina. Includes fungi with no known sexual reproductive stages - the old Fungi Imperfecta.
Embryonic developmental pattern in which the mouth does not form from the blastopore but from a second opening: includes echinoderms and chordates. Contrasts with morphogenesis ...
Test for potential carcinogens based upon induction of prophage lambda in bacteria ( E. coliK12 envA uvrB). There is a good correlation between ability of aflatoxins and ...
Steroid analogue (glucocorticoid), used as an anti-inflammatory drug.
High-molecular weight polysaccharides synthesied by some microorganisms. Consist of D-glucose linked by a -1,6 bonds (and a few a -1,3 and a -1,4 bonds). Dextran 75 (average ...
(= Dbl homology domain)
Domain of around 250 amino acids found in Dbl, Vav and a family of other Dbl-family proteins (Lfc, Lsc, Ect2, Dbs, Brx). DH domains are invariably ...
See dihydrofolate reductase.
Rare form of diabetes in which the kidney tubules do not reabsorb enough water. This can be because (a) either the renal tubules have defective receptors for antidiuretic ...
Relative or absolute lack of insulin leading to uncontrolled carbohydrate metabolism. In juvenile onset diabetes (that may be an autoimmune response to pancreatic B cells) the ...
Trichothecene mycotoxin produced by various species of fungi. Cytotoxic for human CFU-GM and BFU-E.
Glycerol substituted on the 1 and 2 hydroxyl groups with long chain fatty acyl residues. DAG is a normal intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl phospholipids and is ...
Discharge of an empty pinocytotic vesicle from a cell. Not commonly used.
The final stage of the first prophase of meiosis. The chromosomes condense to their greatest extent during this stage and normally the nucleolus disappears and the fragments ...
Separation of molecules on the basis of size through a semi-permeable membrane. Molecules with dimensions greater than the pore diameter are retained inside the dialysis bag or ...
(= DABA; 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid)
Compound used in fluorimetric determination of DNA content: gives fluorescent product when heated in acid solution with aldehydes.
Archaic term for the emigration of leucocytes across the endothelium.
Any enzyme capable of catalysing oxidation of NAD or NADPH in the presence of an electron acceptor other than oxygen - for example methylene blue, quinones or cytochromes. ...
Algae of the division Bacillariophyta; largely unicellular and characterized by having cell walls of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix. The cell walls are formed in ...
dibutyryl cyclic AMP
An analogue of cyclic AMP that shares some of the pharmacological effects of this nucleotide, but is generally believed to enter cells more readily on account of its greater ...
Inhibitor of cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants.
Gene in Xenopus that encodes a secreted protein (259 residues, 40 kD) that induces the head region in the developing embryo. Member of a family of genes. Dkk-1 is a ...
Plants belonging to the large subclass of Angiosperms that have two seed-leaves (cotyledons). Includes the majority of herbaceous flowering plants and most deciduous woody plants ...
Organelle found in plant cells and functionally equivalent to the Golgi apparatus of animal cells.
A genus of the Acrasidae, the cellular slime moulds.
Prolonged diplotene of meiosis: the stage at which oocyte nuclei remain during yolk production.
(= Sanger dideoxy sequencing)
The most popular method of DNA sequence determination (cf. Maxam-Gilbert method). Starting with single-stranded template DNA, a short ...
In vertebrate central nervous system, the most rostral part of the brain stem, consisting of the thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus and epithalamus. It is a key relay zone for ...
The differential adhesion hypothesis was advanced by Steinberg to explain the mechanism by which heterotypic cells in mixed aggregates sort out into isotypic territories. ...
differential display PCR
Variation of the polymerase chain reaction used to identify differentially expressed genes. mRNA from two different tissue samples is reverse transcribed, then amplified using ...
differential interference contrast
Method of image formation in the light microscope based on the method proposed by Nomarski (though strictly speaking all forms of optical microscopy rely to a greater or lesser ...
differential scanning calorimetry
Form of thermal analysis in which heat flows to a sample and a standard at the same temperature are compared, as the temperature is changed.
General term for techniques used to identify genes that are expressed differentially in two different conditions. These are usually based on identifying those mRNAs that are more ...
Process in development of a multicellular organism by which cells become specialized for particular functions. Requires that there is selective expression of portions of the ...
Any large structural macromolecule that can be detected by immune reagents and that also is associated with the differentiation of a particular cell type or types. Many cells ...
When a wave-train passes an obstacle secondary waves are set up that interfere with the primary wave and give rise to bands of constructive and destructive interference. Around a ...
(= diffusion constant)
For the translational diffusion of solutes, diffusion is described by Fick\'s First Law, that states that the amount of a substance crossing a given area ...
The boundary layer hypothesis; that the proliferation of cells in culture is limited by the rate at which some essential component (almost certainly a growth factor) diffuses ...
Potential arising from different rates of diffusion of ions at the interface of two dissimilar fluids; a junction potential.
Congenital absence of the thymus and parathyroid as a result of which the T-lymphocyte system is absent.
Intracellular vacuole into which lysosomal enzymes are discharged and digestion of the contents occurs. More commonly referred to as a secondary lysosome.
General term for pharmacologically active compounds from the foxglove ( Digitalis ). The active substances are the cardiac glycosides, digoxin, digitoxin, strophanthin and ...
Small molecule derived from foxgloves, that is used for labelling DNA or RNA probes, and subsequent detection by enzymes linked to anti-digoxygenin antibodies. Proprietary to ...
Predominant androgen secreted from the adrenal cortex, an intermediate in androgen and oestrogen biosynthesis. Can be converted to sulphate (DHEA-S) the ...
An enzyme (EC 18.104.22.168) involved in the biosynthesis of folic acid coenzymes, that transfers hydrogen from NADP to dihydrofolate, yielding tetrahydrofolic acid, an ...
Specific blockers of some types of calcium channel, eg. nifedipine and nitrenidine.
Name used for fluorescent derivatives of indocarbocyanine iodide that have two long alkyl chains and are membrane soluble. Used as general stains for membranes and also as ...
Cloning by diluting the cell suspension to the point at which the probability of there being more than one cell in the inoculum volume is small. Inevitably on quite a few ...
A small molecule used as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Also used after reaction with various proteins to provide a strong and specific ...
Photosynthetic organisms of the order Dinoflagellida (for botanists Dinophyceae). They are aquatic and abundant in marine plankton; two flagella lie in grooves in an often ...
Flowering plants in which the sexes are separate; each plant is either male or female and flowers have either stamens or pistils but not both.
An AB exotoxin (62 kD) coded by b corynephage of virulent Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (that can produce a repressor of toxin production). The B subunit binds to ...
Bacterial strain in which two spherical cells (cocci) are joined to form a pair like a dumb-bell or figure-of-eight.
A diploid cell has its chromosomes in homologous pairs, and thus has 2 copies of each autosomal genetic locus. The diploid number (2n) equals twice the haploid number and is ...
Proposed family of all double-stranded RNA viruses: considered taxonomically unsound by many virologists.
The final stage of the first prophase of meiosis. All four chromatids of a tetrad are fully visible and homologous chromosomes start to move away from one another except at ...