Genus of enteropathic bacilli of the Klebsiella group. Not to be confused with the Family Enterobacteria of which they are members.
A large family of Gram negative bacilli that inhabit the large intestine of mammals. Commonest is Escherichia coli ; most are harmless commensals but others can cause intestinal ...
Iron-binding compound (siderophore) of E. coli and Salmonella spp. A cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine.
Group of bacterial exotoxins produced by enterobacteria and that act on the intestinal mucosa. By perturbing ion and water transport systems they induce diarrhoea. Cholera ...
A genus of Picornaviridae that preferentially replicate in the mammalian intestinal tract. It includes the polioviruses and Coxsackie viruses.
Metabolic pathway for degradation of glucose in a wide variety of bacteria. Differs from the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway although end result is similar.
Retroviral gene encoding viral envelope glycoproteins.
(1) Lipoprotein outer layer of some viruses - derived from plasma membrane of the host cell.
(2) In bacteriology, the plasma membrane and cell wall complex of a bacterium.
Component protein (210 kD) of transglutaminase cross-linked protein layer (cornified envelope) deposited under the plasma membrane of keratinocytes in outer layer of skin. Has ...
An increase in enzyme secretion in response to an environmental signal. The classic example is the induction of b -galactosidase in E. coli.
Tetrabromofluorescein, a red dye used extensively in histology, for example in the standard H & E (haematoxylin/ eosin) stain used in routine pathology.
Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (granulocyte) of the myeloid series, of which the granules stain red with eosin. Phagocytic, particularly associated with helminth infections and ...
eosinophil cationic protein
Arginine-rich protein (21 kD) in granules of eosinophils, that damages schistosomula in vitro. Not the same as the MBP (major basic protein) of the granules.
eosinophil chemotactic peptide
(= ECF; ECF of anaphylaxis; ECF-C)
Tetrapeptides (of which two are identified: VGSE and AGSE) released by mast cells and that are said to both attract and activate eosinophils.
Condition in which there are unusually large numbers of eosinophils in the circulation, usually a consequence of helminth parasites or allergy.
(1) Having affinity for the red dye eosin.
(2) Inflammatory lesion characterized by large numbers of eosinophils.
Small (1500 D) peptide, possibly released by T-lymphocytes, that regulates eosinophil development in the bone marrow. Probably interleukin 5.
Chemokine with specificity for eosinophils.
Class of neuroactive steroids. Name derived from epiallopregnanolone, an endogenous metabolite of progesterone that has activity on the GABA-A receptor complex. Have ...
Cells that line cavities in the central nervous system - considered to be a type of glial cell.
Class of receptor tyrosine kinases (Nuk, ) implicated in control of axon guidance, regulation of cell migration and defining compartments in embryogenesis. Ligands are ...
Family of protein tyrosine kinases. Named from erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma cells in which gene was first identified. Related kinases are elk (EPH-like ...
(= (1R,2S) -1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-2-methylaminopropane)
Alkaloid from plants of genus Ephedra. Structural analogue of epinephrine (adrenaline) the effects of which it mimics.
Prefix indicating something on, above or near. Epi-illumination is from above, epithelia cover (are on top of) other tissues.
The process in early embryonic development in which a monolayer of dividing cells (blastoderm) spreads over the surface of a large yolk-filled egg (eg. those of teleosts, ...
The first shoot of a plant embryo or seedling, above the point of insertion of the cotyledon(s). Can be relatively long in some seedlings showing etiolation.
(1) Cell of epidermis in animals.
(2) Plant cell on the surface of a leaf or other young plant tissue, where bark is absent. The exposed surface is covered with a layer of ...
epidermal growth factor
A mitogenic polypeptide (6 kD) initially isolated from male mouse submaxillary gland. The name refers to the early bioassay, but EGF is active on a variety of cell types, ...
Outer epithelial layer of a plant or animal. May be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (as for example the cuticle of arthropods), or a complex stratified ...
Convoluted tubule connecting the vas efferens, that comes from the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis, to the vas deferens. Maturation and storage of sperm occur in the ...
Method of fluorescence microscopy in which the excitatory light is transmitted through the objective onto the specimen rather than through the specimen; only reflected ...
The theory that development is a process of gradual increase in complexity as opposed to the preformationist view that supposed that mere increase in size was sufficient to ...
The study of mechanisms involved in the production of phenotypic complexity in morphogenesis. According to the epigenetic view of differentiation, the cell makes a series of ...
Very extensively glycosylated transmembrane glycoprotein found in TA3 Ha mouse mammary carcinoma cells and that may mask histocompatibility antigens. Functionally analogous ...
Lackie Major glycoprotein of epidermal basement membrane, consisting of three disulphide-bonded subunits of 170, 145 and 135 kD. Epiligrin is the major ligand for a3/b1 ...
Diastereomeric monosaccharides that have opposite configurations of a hydroxyl group at only one position, eg. D-glucose and D-mannose.
Pattern of regeneration in which proliferation precedes the development of a new part. Opposite of morphallaxis.
Asymmetrical growth of a leaf or stem that causes curvature of the structure.
Intermediate filament-associated protein (44.5 kD monomer) associated with vimentin in non-neural cells.
(= polymorphic epithelial mucin, PEM; epithelial membrane antigen, EMA)
Heavily glycosylated membrane glycoprotein. Encoded by the MUC- 1 gene; has a molecular weight of ...
Piece of hereditary material that can exist as free, autonomously replicating DNA or be attached to and integrated into the chromosome of the cell, in which case it replicates ...
Non-reciprocal interaction of non-allelic genes - for example when the expression of one gene masks the expression of another. Thus a gene that blocks development of an organ ...
Mucin-like glycoprotein found on surface of human tumour cells (also known as CA antigen) but not non-tumorigenic cell lines. It is present on the surface of some specialized ...
In a general sense, a cell that has an appearance that is similar to that of epithelial cells: used specifically of the very flattened macrophages found in granulomas (eg. in ...
One of the simplest types of tissues. A sheet of cells, one or several layers thick, organized above a basal lamina (see basement membrane), and often specialized for ...
That part of an antigenic molecule to which the T-cell receptor responds; a site on a large molecule against which an antibody will be produced and to which it will bind. See ...
Large collection (hundreds of millions) of peptides each encoded by a randomly mutated piece of DNA in a phage genome and expressed on the surface of that bacteriophage, ...
Short peptide sequence that constitutes an epitope for an existing antibody. Widely used in molecular biology to ‘tag’ transgenic proteins (as a translational fusion ...
Veterinary equivalent of an epidemic.
Compounds (epothilone A and B) isolated from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum Str 90. Cytotoxic to tumour cells as a result of inducing microtubule assembly and stabilization.
Species of Herpetoviridae, that binds CR2 and that causes infective mononucleosis and, in the presence of other factors, tumours such as Burkitt\'s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal ...
Region of the mitotic spindle where chromosomes are aligned at metaphase: as its name suggests, it lies midway between the poles of the spindle.
(= equilibrium dissociation constant; dissociation constant)
The ratio of the reverse and forward rate constants for a reaction of the type A + B = AB. At equilibrium the ...
Technique used to measure the binding of a small molecule ligand to a larger binding partner. The macromolecule is contained within a dialysis chamber and the diffusible ...
Small peptide toxins (19 kD) from Actinia equina. Form cation-selective pores and are cytolytic.
The situation where two interacting molecular species are present in concentrations just sufficient to produce occupation of all binding sites. Only used to describe high ...
(= endoplasmic reticulum associated binding protein)
Protein (262 residues, 27 kD) in the ER that binds amyloid b ( A b). Found ubiquitously but more extensively in liver, ...
Curaremimetic polypeptide toxins (62 residues) from venom of Laticauda semifasciata. Bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
Two oncogenes, erb A and erb B, associated with erythroblastosis virus (an acute transforming retrovirus). The cellular homologue of erb B is the structural gene for the ...
Metabolically inert products of photosynthesis, such as starch grains and fat globules.
System or process in which the final state is independent of the initial state.
(= (Z) -docos-13-enoic acid)
Trivial name for 22:1 fatty acid. Found in rape-seed (canola) oil.
Phytopathogenic bacterium that causes soft-rot. Virulence factors include pectinases coded by pelB, pelC, pelD, pelE, ogl, kduI and kdgT that degrade the cell walls of the plant ...
See erythroid transcription factor.
A spreading infection of the dermis possibly associated with an allergic reaction to products of the causative organism, Streptococcus pyogenes.
Eruption of pink or red nodules, usually on the lower limbs as a result of infection with any of a range of bacteria, viruses or fungi. Often associated with IBD and in some ...
Rather non-committal name for a nucleated cell of the bone marrow that gives rise to erythrocytes. See also normoblasts, BFU-E, CFU-E, primitive and definitive erythroblasts
Severe haemolytic disease of the neonate as a result of transplacental passage of maternal antibodies mainly directed against Rhesus blood group antigens.
The membrane and cytoskeletal elements of the erythrocyte devoid of cytoplasmic contents, but preserving the original morphology.
Toxin produced by strains of Streptococcus pyogenes responsible for scarlet fever. Three antigenic variants of the toxin are known. It is a small protein that is complexed with ...
erythroid Kruppel-like factor
Red cell-specific transcriptional activator essential for establishing high levels of adult beta-globin expression.
Abnormal precursor (virally transformed) of mouse erythrocytes that can be grown in culture and induced to differentiate by treatment with, for example, DMSO. See Friend ...
General name for a variety of wide-spectrum macrolide antibiotics isolated from Streptomyces erythreus. Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the prokaryotic 50S ribosomal ...
Process of production of erythrocytes in the marrow in adult mammals. A pluripotent stem cell (CFU) produces, by a series of divisions, committed stem cells (BFU-Es) that give ...
Glycoprotein (46 kD) produced in the kidney and that regulates the production of red blood cells in the marrow. Higher concentrations are required to stimulate BFU-Es than CFU-Es ...
The archetypal bacterium for biochemists, used very extensively in experimental work. A rod-shaped Gram negative bacillus (0.5 x 3-5 m m) abundant in the large intestine (colon) ...
Escherichia coli hemolysin
(= a-hemolysin; HlyA)
Exotoxin of the RTX family of bacterial cytolysins. Synthesized as an inactive 110 kD precursor that is activated by fatty acid acylation by accessory ...
essential amino acids
Those amino acids that cannot be synthesized by an organism and must therefore be present in the diet. The term is often applied anthropocentrically to those amino acids ...
essential fatty acids
The three fatty acids required for growth in mammals, arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acids. Only linoleic acid needs to be supplied in the diet; the other two can be made ...
An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of organic esters to release an alcohol or thiol and acid. The term could be applied to enzymes that hydrolyze carboxylate, phosphate and ...
A dye that intercalates into DNA and to some extent RNA. Intercalation into linear DNA is easier than into circular DNA and the addition of ethidium bromide to DNA prior to ...
Plant growth substance (phytohormone, plant hormone), involved in promoting growth, epinasty, fruit ripening, senescence and breaking of dormancy. Its action is closely linked ...
Growth habit adopted by germinating seedlings in the dark. Involves rapid extension of shoot and/or hypocotyl and suppression of chlorophyll formation and leaf growth.
Form of plastid present in plants grown in the dark. Lacks chlorophyll, but contains chlorophyll precursors and can develop into a functional chloroplast in the light.
Lignan derivative synthesized from podophyllotoxin. Used as an anti-tumour drug and probably works by inhibiting topoisomerase II.
An oncogene found in E26 transforming retrovirus of chickens. Encodes a nuclear protein that regulates the initiation of transcription from a range of cellular and viral ...
DNA binding domain, formed of three alpha-helices. Named after the DNA-binding domain of the human ETS-1 transcription factor.
A major subdivision of the prokaryotes (includes all except Archaebacteria. Most Gram positive bacteria, cyanobacteria, mycoplasmas, enterobacteria, pseudomonads and ...
The chromosomal regions that are diffuse during interphase and condensed at the time of nuclear division. They show what is considered to be the normal pattern of staining (eu = ...
Simple multicellular alga of the Order Volvocida - often quoted as illustrating the path to multicellularity. Small spherical or ovoid colonies of between 4-64 flagellated cells ...
Euglena gracilis and E. viridis are phytoflagellate protozoa of the algal order Euglenophyta (zoological order Euglenida). An elongate cell with two flagella, one emerging from ...
Organism whose cells have (1) chromosomes with nucleosomal structure and separated from the cytoplasm by a two-membrane nuclear envelope, and
(2) compartmentalisation of a ...
Form of melanin found in animals - particularly in skin and hair and in pigmented retinal epithelium of the eye..
Order of Protozoa, includes true slime moulds (not the cellular slime moulds).
Division of fungi having defined cell walls and forming hyphae. The other main group are the Myxomycota.
Polyploidy in which the chromosome number is an integer multiple of the starting number.
Genus of free living hypotrich Protozoa. Do not have cilia but may have undulating membranes for propulsion.
Putative oncogene from mouse myeloid leukemias.
Mechanism for the repair of environmental damage to one strand of DNA (loss of purines due to thermal fluctuations, formation of pyrimidine dimers by UV irradiation). The site ...
A cell in which the membrane response to depolarizations is non-linear, causing amplification and propagation of the depolarisation (an " action potential"). Apart from neurons ...