L-fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is found as a constituent of N-glycan chains of glycoproteins; it is the only common L-form of sugar involved. D-fucose is usually encountered as a ...
An enzyme catalysing the transfer of fucosyl residues from the nucleotide sugar GDP-fucose.
Carotenoid pigment of certain brown algae (Phaeophyta) and bacteria: absorbs at 500-580nm.
Genus of brown algae common on shore-line of Northern seas.
Japanese Puffer fish. Notorious for the poison (tetrodotoxin) found in lethal amounts in the poison gland (that must be removed before the fish can safely be eaten) and at low ...
Naturally secreted antibiotic from Aspergillus fumigatus that inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and is therefore potentially anti-angiogenic.
A dicarboxylic acid intermediate in the Krebs cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle). Can be derived from aspartate, phenylalanine and tyrosine for input to the Krebs cycle.
(= expression cloning)
Strategy for cloning a desired gene that is based on some property (antigenicity, ligand binding, etc.) of the expressed gene. For example, a cDNA ...
The killifish. A teleost much used for the study of early embryonic development because the egg and embryo are transparent.
A fluorescent dye, used in measurement of intracellular free calcium levels.
Subtilisin-like eukaryotic endopeptidase with substrate specificity for consensus sequence Arg-X-Lys/Arg-Arg at the cleavage site. Furin is known to activate the ...
Potent diuretic that increases the excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions, and inhibits their resorption in the proximal and distal renal tubules.
Disease of fish caused by Aeromonas salmonicida. Major problem in fish farms.
Important fungal mycotoxin contaminants of various food products. Include zearalenone, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol monoacetate, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, ...
(Japanese for "too few segments") ; a pair-rule gene of Drosophila.
Tapered at both ends, like a spindle - though the current rarity of spindles makes this a somewhat unhelpful description.
Lymphocyte surface protein originally described as being an essential cofactor for HIV bound to CD4 to fuse with and enter the cell, later shown to be a chemokine receptor ...
Protein formed by expression of a hybrid gene made by combining two gene sequences. Typically this is accomplished by cloning a cDNA into an expression vector in-frame with an ...
Any sequence of enzyme-catalysed reactions in which the forward and reverse processes (catalysed by different enzymes) are constitutively active. Frequently used to describe the ...
Very small protein (5 kD) from platelets that binds to G-actin rendering it assembly-incompetent.
A non-receptor tyrosine kinase, related to src.
(= Giemsa banding)
Spreads of metaphase chromosomes, treated briefly with protease then stained with Giemsa, produce characteristic banding patterns that allow ...
(1) See GTP-binding proteins.
(2) The spike glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. This has been an important protein for investigation of membrane transport in ...
Cell surface receptors that are coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins (GTP-binding proteins). All G-protein-coupled receptors seem to have seven membrane-spanning domains ...
See GTP-binding protein.
Phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle between the end of cell division and the start of DNA synthesis, S phase. G stands for gap.
Phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle between the end of DNA synthesis and the start of cell division.
(= Grb2-associated binder-1)
Protein, 77 kD, 694 residues, that binds to Grb-2 and has homology with IRS-1 (insulin receptor substrate-1), particularly in the PH domain in the ...
(= gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Fast inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system; prevalent in higher regions of the neuraxis. Also mediates peripheral ...
Member of a family of receptors for neurotransmitters that includes those for glycine and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Opened by g -amino butyric acid (GABA). There ...
Nuclear protein induced by growth arrest and DNA damage. Level is highest in G1 phase of cell cycle and gadd associates with cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1 and with ...
(= group specific antigen)
The protein of the nucleocapsid shell around the RNA of a retrovirus.
gain of function mutation
Gene mutation that results in higher than normal levels of activity of the gene product, for example by deletion of a regulatory phosphorylation site on the protein. Examples ...
Inducible promoter region of the yeast operon that encodes, among other things, the enzyme beta-galactosidase. Extensively used, as is the prokaryotic analogue, because the ...
Yeast transcription factor that binds the UASG promoter domain. Often used in reporter gene constructs and in yeast two-hybrid screening.
GAL4 enhancer trap
Form of enhancer trap (classically in Drosophila) in which the reporter gene is the yeast transcription factor GAL4. The advantage of this system is that such enhancer ...
Surface antigen characteristic of newly differentiated oligodendrocytes. GalC antibody is used to identify this glial cell type in cultures of rat optic nerve and ...
Inborn disorder in which the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase, that converts galactose-1-phosphate into glucose-1-phosphate, is absent. Excess ...
Hexose identical to glucose except that orientation of -H and -OH on carbon 4 are exchanged. A component of cerebrosides and gangliosides, and glycoproteins. Lactose, the ...
galactose binding protein
A bacterial periplasmic protein, most studied in E. coli, that acts both as a sensory element in the detection of galactose as a chemotactic signal, and in the uptake of the ...
Enzyme catalysing the transfer of galactose units from the sugar-nucleotide, uridine diphospho-galactose (UDP-galactose) to an acceptor, commonly N-acetyl-glucosamine in a ...
Neuropeptide (29 amino acids) isolated from the upper small intestine of pig but subsequently found throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. Regulates gut motility ...
Soluble lectinsof around 130-140 residues secreted by vertebrates. Developmentally regulated: seem to be important in differentiation of tissues. Larger, related lectin is ...
One of a family of b-galactoside binding proteins that has growth-regulatory and immunomodulatory properties. Galectin-1 mediates cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion. ...
(= formerly IgE binding protein, Mac-2; e-BP)
One of a family of b -galactoside binding proteins (30 kD) that has growth-regulatory and immunomodulatory properties. Galectin-1 ...
(= 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid)
Phenolic acid, commonly found in flowering plants, usually esterified with tannins.
Order of birds that includes chickens, peacocks, grouse, pheasants and turkeys all of which have gizzards.
See gut-associated lymphoid tissue.
The directed movement of cells induced by an applied voltage. This movement is almost always directed toward the cathode, occurs at fields around 1 mV/mm, and is argued to be ...
Specialized haploid cell produced by meiosis and involved in sexual reproduction. Male gametes are usually small and motile (spermatozoa), whereas female gametes (oocytes) are ...
Haploid stage of life cycle of plants; the major vegetative stage for simple plants like liverworts.
Lackie Lineage of T-cells possessing the gd form of the T-cell receptor. Appear early in development and constitute around 5% of mature T-cells in peripheral ...
Complex toxin (33.4 kD) produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Rabbit erythrocytes are particularly sensitive to lysis by the toxin, but the mechanism is unknown.
Antiviral nucleoside analogue: 9-((1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxy) methyl) -guanine. Used in treatment of cytomegalovirus.
A physical cluster of neurons. In vertebrates, the ganglia are appendages to the central nervous system; in invertebrates, the majority of neurons are organized as separate ...
A type of interneuron that conveys information from the retinal bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells to the brain.
A glycosphingolipid that contains one or more residues of N-acetyl or other neuraminic acid derivatives. Gangliosides are found in highest concentration in cells of the nervous ...
Diseases, such as Tay-Sachs, caused by inherited deficiency in enzymes necessary for the breakdown of gangliosides. Cause gross pathological changes in the nervous system, with ...
See GTPase activating protein.
Segmentation genes involved in specifying relatively coarse subdivisions of the embryo. They are expressed sequentially in development between egg-polarity genes and pair-rule ...
A junction between two cells consisting of many pores that allow the passage of molecules up to about 900 D. Each pore is formed by an hexagonal array (connexon) of six ...
Nucleolar protein containing a glycine- and arginine-rich (GAR) domain from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Required for 18S rRNA and 40S ribosomal subunit accumulation and assembly ...
Fibroblasts with large deposits of mucopolysaccharide, commonly found in storage diseases such as Hurler\'s disease.
A prokaryotic cellular organelle consisting of cylindrical vesicles around 75 x 300nm, often in clusters. The wall of the gas vacuole, which is permeable to gases but not to ...
(= growth arrest specific gene 1)
Gene, the product of which has been shown to cause cellular quiescence.
gastric inhibitory polypeptide
Peptide hormone (43 amino acids) that stimulates insulin release and inhibits the release of gastric acid and pepsin. See GIP.
A group of peptide hormones secreted by the mucosal gut lining of some mammals in response to mechanical stress or high pH. They stimulate secretion of protons and pancreatic ...
A regulatory peptide (27 amino acids) thought to be the mammalian equivalent of bombesin. It elicits gastrin release, causes broncho-constriction and vasodilation in the ...
Class of the Phylum Mollusca; snails, slugs, limpets and conches.
Embryonic stage of an animal when gastrulation occurs; follows blastula stage.
During embryonic development of most animals a complex and coordinated series of cellular movements occurs at the end of cleavage. The details of these movements, gastrulation, ...
gated ion channel
Transmembrane proteins of excitable cells, that allow a flux of ions to pass only under defined circumstances. Channels may be either voltage-gated, such as the sodium channel ...
Small currents in the membrane just prior to the increase in ionic permeability, due to the movement of charged particles within the membrane. So called because they open the ...
Familial autosomal recessive defect of glucocerebrosidase ( b -glucosidase), most common in Ashkenazi Jews. Associated with hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of liver and spleen) ...
One of the family of growth arrest genes ( gas and gadd genes), a homeobox gene restricted to cardiovascular tissue and downregulated by mitogens.
DNA binding motif (GGGCG) recognized by the mammalian transcription factor Sp1.
Protein (40 kD) that binds to the barbed ends of microfilaments. Has considerable sequence homology with gelsolin, and like gelsolin responds to calcium and to ...
(= glioma-derived growth factor)
Growth factor derived from glioma cells. GDGF-I has subsequently shown to be a homodimer of polypeptides immunologically similar to the A-chain ...
Guanosine diphosphate. Phosphorylation gives GTP.
GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) for ARF from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contains Sec7-like domain. Similar to ARNO and cytohesin.
Yeast guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ARF. Contains Sec7-like domain.
Proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana that are homologous to the ‘early methionine labelled’ (Em) proteins of wheat.
(= guanine nucleotide exchange factors.)
Family of proteins that facilitate the exchange of bound GDP for GTP on small G-proteins such as ras and rho and thus activate them. ...
Jelly-like material formed by the coagulation of a colloidal liquid. Many gels have a fibrous matrix and fluid-filled interstices: gels are viscoelastic rather than simply ...
Electrophoresis using a gel supporting-phase. Usually applied to systems where the gel is based on polyacrylamide. See electrophoresis.
An important method for separating molecules according to molecular size by percolating the solution through beads of solvent-permeated polymer that has pores of similar size to ...
gel mobility shift
(= gel retardation assay)
Technique for studying DNA-protein interactions. For example, to study the levels of a particular transcription factor, nuclear protein extracts are ...
gel retardation assay
(= mobility shift assay)
Test for interaction between molecules by looking for a change in gel electrophoretic mobility. For example, to assay for levels of a transcription ...
A small area of oedema in the arterial intima, possibly a precursor of a fibrous plaque.
Actin-binding protein (90 kD) that nucleates actin polymerization, but at high calcium ion concentrations (10-6 M) causes severing of filaments.
Drug that lowers plasma lipoprotein levels. Activates PPAR a.
Originally defined as the physical unit of heredity but the meaning has changed with increasing knowledge. It is probably best defined as the unit of inheritance that occupies a ...
Selective replication of DNA sequence within a cell, producing multiple extra copies of that sequence. The best-known example occurs during the maturation of the oocyte of ...
An array of oligonucleotides immobilized on a surface that can be used to screen an RNA sample (after reverse transcription) and thus a method for rapidly determining which ...
The insertion of a DNA sequence into a vector that can then be propagated in a host organism, generating a large number of copies of the sequence.
A phenomenon in which alleles are segregated in a 3:1 not 2:2 ratio in meiosis. May be a result of DNA polymerase switching templates and copying from the other homologous ...
Number of copies of a particular gene locus in the genome; in most cases either one or two.
A class of DNA rearrangement that generates a supernumerary copy of a gene in the genome. This would allow each gene to evolve independently to produce distinct functions. Such ...
The full use of the information in a gene via transcription and translation leading to production of a protein and hence the appearance of the phenotype determined by that ...
(= multigene family)
A set of genes coding for diverse proteins which, by virtue of their high degree of sequence similarity, are believed to have evolved from a single ...
Treatment of a disease caused by malfunction of a gene, by stable transfection of the cells of the organism with the normal gene.
General term for the insertion of foreign genes into a cell or organism. Synonymous with transfection.
Time taken for a cell population to double in numbers, and thus equivalent to the average length of the cell cycle.
Relationship between the sequence of bases in nucleic acid and the order of amino acids in the polypeptide synthesized from it. A sequence of three nucleic acid bases (a ...
Random change in allele frequency within a population. If the population is isolated and the process continues for long enough may lead to speciation.
General term covering the use of various experimental techniques to produce molecules of DNA containing new genes or novel combinations of genes, usually for insertion into a ...
The term refers to the fact that certain genes tend to be inherited together, because they are on the same chromosome. Thus parental combinations of characters are found more ...
(= genetic burden)
In general terms the decrease in fitness of a population (as a result of selection acting on phenotypes) due to deleterious mutations in the population gene ...
The position of a gene in a linkage map or on a chromosome.
Formation of new combinations of alleles in offspring (viruses, cells or organisms) as a result of exchange of DNA sequences between molecules. It occurs naturally, as in ...